PCO - Optometry

  1. An ocular disorder in which parallel rays fail to come to a focus on the retina
  2. The cause for the inability of the eye to focus an object due to problems in its total power
    Refractive error
  3. Nearsightedness
  4. Farsightedness
  5. A condition that may be present at birth. The object seen is not clear because of an irregular or toric corneal or lens curvature
  6. Means "old eye"and is a vision condition involving the loss of the eye's ability to focus on close objects
  7. A condition in which lowered visual acuity exists, even with best corrected lenses (lazy eye)
  8. Having the shape of or approximating a sphere
  9. A lens used to correct astigmatism, having one of its surfaces shaped lie part of a torus so that its focal lengths are different in different meridians
  10. The distance between the center of the pupils
    Interpupillary distance
  11. Complete absence of tissues of the eyes. Globe absent (due to failure of formation of the optic vesicle) and globe reduced FOTO
  12. Prominent orbits and globes
  13. Small orbits and globes
  14. Retrodisplacement of the eyeball (eyes look deep in the head)
  15. Laterally displaced orbits. Is an increase in the interorbital distance, often associated ith cleidocranial or craniofacial dysostosis (defect in the normal ossification of fetal cartilages)
    - have a huge pd
  16. A falling forward (like going out, in this case the eyeball)
  17. Abnormal protrusion of the eyeball (proptosis due to hyperthyroidism)
  18. A paralysis or weakness of one or more of the muscles for eye movement. Etiology can be myopathic, that the muscles controlling eye movement are directly involved, or neurogenic that the nerve pathways controlling eye muscles are affected.
  19. Absence of iris (autosomal dominant)
    symptoms- blurry vision and photophobia
  20. A sector-shaped absence of tissue, due to failure of the fetal fissure to close completly. May involve the iris, the choriod, or the optic nerve.
  21. Due to lack of oxygen there is the formation of abnormal new blood vessels, very thin, called neovascularization, on the anterior of the iris. It may be associated with diabetes mellitus, retinal ischemia, and neovascular glaucoma. They have a high IOP.
    Rubeosis iridis
  22. An opacity in the crystalline lens that interferes with vision.
    -Congenital, cortical, nuclear, anterior, and posterior subcapsular, senile, secondary
  23. An eye possesing its crystalline lens
  24. An eye that has the crystalline lens has been removed
  25. An eye in which a crystalline lens was removed AND substituted withan intraocular lens.
  26. Inflammatory process of lid margins (3 types)
  27. Small scales or drandful, clinging on eyelashes and lid margins. Communly accompanied by dandruff
    Seborrhiec Blepharitis
  28. Ulcerative areas along the lid margins, leading to the loss of eyelashes. Caused by a bacterial infection, mostly staphyloccus.
    Ulcerative Blepharitis
  29. A combination of seborrheic and bacterial Blepharitis
    Mixed Blepharitis
  30. An infection of an eyelash follicle (stye). 
  31. An infection of the meibomian gland
    Internal hordeolum
  32. Chronic granulomatous infection of meibomian glands
  33. Eversion of the lower lid, causing overlow of tears, running down the cheeks (epiphora)- usually in the elderly
  34. Inversion of the lower lid, usually allowing eyelashes to rub the cornea (trichiasis) - usually in the elderly
  35. A sinking down (in this case of superior eyelid)
  36. An excess of skin, redundant and lax eyelid skin and muscle. Could be aquired or conjenital
  37. Exacerbations and remissions of eyelid edema that results in stretching and subsequent atrophy of the eyelid tissue.
  38. Eyelids are retracted
    Eyelid Retraction
  39. An eye may not be fully closed because of a neurologic, muscular, or mechanical disorder.
  40. Circumscribed malformation of the skin, especially if colored by hyperpigmentation- Check for ABCD
    A- Appearance, B- Borders, C- Color, D- Diameter
    Nevus (Nevi if more then one)
  41. Characterized by vertical folds of skin over the medial canthi. Eyes look deviated (really is pseudoesotropia)
    Epicanthal folds
  42. A waxy yellowish deposit in the medial aspect of the lid, suggesting the possibility of abnormal bllod lipid levels.
  43. Inflammation of the conjunctiva (pink eye)
    - Allergic, bacterial, viral, atopic, epidemic keratoconjunctivis, vernal, keratoconjunctivitus succa
  44. A triangular growth of tissue that extends from the conjunctiva to the cornea.
  45. Very common in adults. Consists of hyaline and yellow elastic tissue. Rarely increase in size, but can get inflamed.
  46. Repetitive, rhythmic, involuntary eye movements
  47. Manifest deviation of the visual axis
    - 2 types
  48. Outword deviation of the eye
  49. Inward deviation of the eye
  50. White pupil
  51. Condition in which the two pupils are not the same size.
  52. The difference in size is the same in dim and bright conditions, and less than 1mm of difference.
    Physiological anisocoria
  53. White cornea
  54. Ocular disease characterized by the increase in the intraocular pressure that causes damage to the optic nerve, causing vision loss
  55. Inflammation of the cornea. There are infectious and sterile types.
  56. Result of increased protein content, and usually inflammatory cells, in the aqueous humor due to inflammation or infection. Tyndall effect
    Aqueous cells and flare
  57. Watering of the eyes due to a blockage of the lacrimal ducts or the excessive secretion of tears.
  58. A perminant abnormal passageway between two organs in the body or between an organ and the exterior of the body.
  59. Engorgment, an excess of blood in a part
  60. Having a large volume of blood in any given place in the body.
    Graded 1 - 3 or mild, moderate, and severe
  61. Redness of the skin caused by hyperemia of the capillaries in the lower layers of the skin.
  62. Swelling (edema) of the conjunctiva
  63. An hematoma, commonly known as a bruise, larger than 1 cm. Can be in the skin or mucous membrane. Petechias are less than 1-2 mm size
  64. Way to test if the frontal sinus is a cause of headaches
    A light source is placed under the supra-orbital ridge near the nose. The frontal sinuses will glow and any blockage will appear as a dark area. The height of the transillumination between the two sinuses must be compared. If one transilluminates higher than the other, it indicates there is some blockage and is in the sinus that transilluminates least.
  65. Way to test if the maxillary sinus is the cause of headaches
    The light source is placed on the infra-orbital ridge near middle-center. The patient tilts their head back and opens their mouth. The maxillary sinus should glow through the rood of the mouth. Any blockages will appear as dark areas against the red glow. The degree of the transillumination of the two sinuses are compared.
Card Set
PCO - Optometry
Study cards for test 1