what is the biological organization?
- organ system
What is a hormone?
chemical messengers in the body that cause changes in cells away from the site of production
chemical messenger do what
- cause change slowly
- change ceases slowly
What are all the organs in the endocrine system?
ovaries, pancreas, testis,adrenal glands, thymus,parathyroid glands, pituatary glands, hypothalmus and pineal glands
Gland in the cervical region
name 3 glands you can find bilaterally in the human body
- adrenal glands
what gland is immediatly inferior to the thyroid gland
most superior gland in the head
superior to the pitutary gland
what is the endocrinology
study of the endocrine system
what is pathology
diseases of a system
what are the specific jobs of of the hormones
- body defenses
What are the three types of hormones?
- amino acid-based
If an hormone is amino acid-based it cannot what?
pass directly through the membrane
If a hormone is steriod based it can what?
pass through the cell membrane
why can steroid based hormones pass through the cell membrane while amino acid-based cannot?
- becasue it is fat soluble
- (cholesterol precursor(so good form of cholesterol))
Why is fevering good?
because you burn off the pathogens and increase the efficency of immune system because it works better when warmer
cAmp activates what?
What does kinase do?
triggers responses to help target cell
What two things have to fit together in the mode of action of a hormone?
the hormone and the receptor
What kicks of a change in a cell?
What is the mode of action of a hormone?
Hormone attaches to a receptor which creates a G protein which then travels down the membrane to create the Adenylate cyclose where ATP gets involved to make cAMP(cyclate AMP) which than activates protein kinase which than results in a change in the cell
What are cell changes?
- alters permability
- stimulate mitosis
- decrease/ increase of protein production
- activates/deactivates enzymes
interacts with the nervous system to coordinate and integrate the activity of body cells
scientific study of hormones and endocrine organs
also called ductless glands, produce hormones and lack ducts
the hypothalmus, along with its neural functions, produces and releases hormones
are chemicals that exert their effects on the same cells that secrete them
also act locally but affect cell types other than those releasing the paracrine chemicals
syntheized from cholesterol
which include leukotrines and prostagladins, we must add a 3rd chemical class
given hormone influence the activity of only certain tissue cells
generated when a hormone binds to a receptor on the plasma membrane
one 2nd messenger, used by neurotransmitters adn olfactory receptors
cyclic AMP signaling Mechanism
this mechanism involves the interaction of 3 plasma membranes components to determine intracellular levels of cyclic AMP (cAMP), a hormone receptor, a G protein, and a effector enzyme (adenylate cyclose)
rapidly degrades molecules
splits a plasma membrane phospholipid called PIP2 into DAG and IP3
activates a protein kinase enzyme which triggers responses within the target cell
release CA2+ from intracellular storage sites
intracellular regulatory protein
some instances were target cells form more receptors in response to rising blood levels of the specific hormone to which they respond
involves loss of receptors and prevents the target cells from overreacting to persistantly high hormone levels
length of time for a hormones blood level to decrease by half
situation when one hormone cannot exertits full effects without another hormone being present
occurs in situation were more than one hormones produces the same effects as the target cell and their combined affects are amplified
are hormone opposes the action of another hormone
negative feedback system
some internal and external stimulus triggers hormone secretion
pitutary gland or hypophysis
secretes at least 9 hormones
connects the gland to the hypothalmus superiorly
hormone secreted by neurons
posterior lobe alone
anterior pituitary or adenhypophysis
composed of glandular tissue, manafactures and releases a number of hormones