endocrine system chapter 16

  1. what is the biological organization?
    • cell
    • tissue
    • organ
    • organ system
    • organism
  2. What is a hormone?
    chemical messengers in the body that cause changes in cells away from the site of production
  3. chemical messenger do what
    • cause change slowly
    • change ceases slowly
  4. What are all the organs in the endocrine system?
    ovaries, pancreas, testis,adrenal glands, thymus,parathyroid glands, pituatary glands, hypothalmus and pineal glands
  5. Gland in the cervical region
    thyroid gland
  6. name 3 glands you can find bilaterally in the human body
    • adrenal glands
    • ovaries
    • testis
  7. what gland is immediatly inferior to the thyroid gland
  8. most superior gland in the head
    pitutary gland
  9. superior to the pitutary gland
  10. what is the endocrinology
    study of the endocrine system
  11. what is pathology
    diseases of a system
  12. what are the specific jobs of of the hormones
    • growth
    • homeostasis
    • reproduction
    • body defenses
  13. What are the three types of hormones?
    • amino acid-based
    • steriod-based
    • eicosanoids
  14. If an hormone is amino acid-based it cannot what?
    pass directly through the membrane
  15. If a hormone is steriod based it can what?
    pass through the cell membrane
  16. why can steroid based hormones pass through the cell membrane while amino acid-based cannot?
    • becasue it is fat soluble
    • (cholesterol precursor(so good form of cholesterol))
  17. Why is fevering good?
    because you burn off the pathogens and increase the efficency of immune system because it works better when warmer
  18. cAmp activates what?
    protein kinase
  19. What does kinase do?
    triggers responses to help target cell
  20. What two things have to fit together in the mode of action of a hormone?
    the hormone and the receptor
  21. What kicks of a change in a cell?
    the hormone
  22. What is the mode of action of a hormone?
    Hormone attaches to a receptor which creates a G protein which then travels down the membrane to create the Adenylate cyclose where ATP gets involved to make cAMP(cyclate AMP) which than activates protein kinase which than results in a change in the cell
  23. What are cell changes?
    • alters permability
    • stimulate mitosis
    • exocytosis
    • decrease/ increase of protein production
    • activates/deactivates enzymes
  24. endocrine system
    interacts with the nervous system to coordinate and integrate the activity of body cells
  25. endocrinology
    scientific study of hormones and endocrine organs
  26. endocrine glands
    also called ductless glands, produce hormones and lack ducts
  27. neuroendocrine organ
    the hypothalmus, along with its neural functions, produces and releases hormones
  28. autocrines
    are chemicals that exert their effects on the same cells that secrete them
  29. paracrines
    also act locally but affect cell types other than those releasing the paracrine chemicals
  30. amino acid-based
    most hormones
  31. steroids
    syntheized from cholesterol
  32. eicosanoids
    which include leukotrines and prostagladins, we must add a 3rd chemical class
  33. target cells
    given hormone influence the activity of only certain tissue cells
  34. second messengers
    generated when a hormone binds to a receptor on the plasma membrane
  35. cyclic AMP
    one 2nd messenger, used by neurotransmitters adn olfactory receptors
  36. cyclic AMP signaling Mechanism
    this mechanism involves the interaction of 3 plasma membranes components to determine intracellular levels of cyclic AMP (cAMP), a hormone receptor, a G protein, and a effector enzyme (adenylate cyclose)
  37. phosphodiesterose
    rapidly degrades molecules
  38. phospholipase C
    splits a plasma membrane phospholipid called PIP2 into DAG and IP3
  39. DAG
    activates a protein kinase enzyme which triggers responses within the target cell
  40. IP3
    release CA2+ from intracellular storage sites
  41. calmodulin
    intracellular regulatory protein
  42. up-regulation
    some instances were target cells form more receptors in response to rising blood levels of the specific hormone to which they respond
  43. down-regulation
    involves loss of receptors and prevents the target cells from overreacting to persistantly high hormone levels
  44. half-life
    length of time for a hormones blood level to decrease by half
  45. permissiveness
    situation when one hormone cannot exertits full effects without another hormone being present
  46. synergism
    occurs in situation were more than one hormones produces the same effects as the target cell and their combined affects are amplified
  47. antagonism
    are hormone opposes the action of another hormone
  48. negative feedback system
    some internal and external stimulus triggers hormone secretion
  49. pitutary gland or hypophysis
    secretes at least 9 hormones
  50. infundibulum
    connects the gland to the hypothalmus superiorly
  51. neurohormones
    hormone secreted by neurons
  52. neurohypophysis
    posterior lobe alone
  53. anterior pituitary or adenhypophysis
    composed of glandular tissue, manafactures and releases a number of hormones
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endocrine system chapter 16
endocrine system