# Exam 1

 Boyle's Law presure and volume vary directly (temperature is constant) Charles's Law volume and temperature vary directly (pressure is constant) Gay-Lussac's Law Barometric Pressure Force exerted on the earth’s surface by the atmospheric pressure Ideal Alveolar Gas Equation PAO2 = (PB – PH2O)FiO2 – PaCO2(1.25) Partial pressure in the alveolar = (bariometric pressure – partial pressure of water) – fractional inspired O2 – partial pressure of arterial blood gas (1.25) Respiratory exchange ratio is the1.25 in the equation Diffusion Movement of gas from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration until equilibrium is reached Flick's Law Rate of gas transfer is directly proportional to surface area of tissue(A), and difference in partial pressure of gas between two sides of tissue (P1, P2) Perfusion-limited gas flow Transfer of gas across alveolar wall is a function of the amount of blood that flows past the alveoli Diffusion-limited gas flow Movement of gas across alveolar wall is a function of integrity of alveolar-capillary membrane What is WOB? Work of Breathing, it is the work put into moving into and out of the lungs Driving Pressure Pressure difference between two points Transairway pressure Pressure difference between mouth pressure (Pm) andalveolar pressure (Palv) Transmural Pressure Pressure difference across the airway walls Transpulmonary pressure Difference between the alveolar pressure(Palv) and the pleural pressure Transthoracic Pressure Difference between the alveolar pressure(Palv) and the body surface pressure Spontaneous breathing Inspiration (active): Diaphragm contracts to enlarge chest cavity, pressure drops moving air into lungsExpiration (passive): Diaphragm relaxes to decrease chest cavity, pressure increases forcing gas out of lungs Lung compliance The amount of air that the lungs will accept for each cmH2O pressure change Change in volume (L) per unit pressure (cmH2O)ΔV / ΔP Flow (of gases and other fluids) Movement of a specific volume of fluid in a particular period of time Principle of continuity If liquid flows through a ridgid pipe, the mass of the fluid entering a tube must equal the mass leaving the tube Hooke's Law Describes elastance : the ability of matter to return to its natural shape afte external force is removed Change in pressure per change in volume ΔP / ΔV Surface tension Cohesive force of luquid molecules at a liquid-gas interface Laplace's Law Pressure and radius are inversely related Pulmonary Surfactant Film that lines alveoliDecreases alveolar surface tensionproduced and stored in type II alveoli cellsKeeps alveoli from collapsing Two major forces causing an inflated lung to recoil inward Elastic properties of the lungSurface tension of the liquid film that lines the alveoli Lung dynamics The movement of gas in and out of the lungs and pressure changes required to do so Poiseuille's Law During normal inspiration, bronchial airways get longer and widerDuring exhalation, bronchial airways get shorter and more narrowV (with dot) =flow, P=pressure, r=radius Airway resistance Pressure difference between the mouth and the alveoli Laminar (type of flow) Streamlined, orderly flow Turbulent (type of flow) Molecules move in a random manner, jumbled mixture of velocities Tracheobronchial (transitional) (type of flow) Occurs in areas where airways branchMay be laminar or turbulent Devices used to measure flow Pneumotachometer*Fixed orifice meterThermal meterUltrasonic meterRotating vane anemometer (Wright respirometer) Phisologic dead space Anatomic and alveolar Ventilatory rate respiratory rate (12-20) Tital volume Volume of air going in and out durign one quiet breath (about 500mL) What makes up the upper respiratory tract? Nasal cavity, paranasal sinus, pharynx, tongue, epiglottis, soft and hard palates, oral cavities, laryngopharynx, larynx (true vocial cords) What makes up the lower respiratory tract? Tracheobronchial tree (including the alveoli) Conducting zone The path for gas to move in and out of the lung (no gas exchange takes place) Trachea, mainstem bronchi, bronchioles, terminal bronchioles Generations 0-19 Function of the upper airway Conduct air from the outside environment into the body Heat/cool and humidify air to body temperature Filter out particles from environment Smell Speech Function of Larynx Passageway between pharynx and trachea Protects against aspiration Generates sound for speech (also used in valsalva maneuver) What makes up the conducting zone? Trachea 0Main stem bronchi 1Lobar bronchi 2Segmental bronchi 3Subsegmental bronchi 4-9Bronchioles 10-15Terminal bronchioles 16-19 What makes up the respiratory zone? Respiratory bronchioles 20-23Alveolar ducts 24-27Alveolar sacs 28 Which generations are cartilaginous? Trachea, main stem bronchi, lobar bronchi, segmental bronchi, subsegmental bronchi only conduct air) Which generations are noncartilaginous airways? Bronchioles, terminal bronchioles (conduct air and gas exchange) Ribs True 1-7False ribs 8-10Floating ribs 11-12 Accessory muscles of ventilation during inspiration –Scalenus muscles –Sternocleidomastoid muscles –Pectoralis major muscles –Trapezius muscles –External intercostal muscles Accessory muscles of ventilation during exppiration –Rectus abdominis muscles –External abdominis obliquus muscles –Internal abdominis obliquus muscles –Transversus abdominis muscles –Internal intercostal muscles What are the lobes of the lungs? Lung anatomy Sympathetic ANS –raise HR –Relax bronchial smooth muscle –lower secretions –Pupils widen Parasympathetic ANS –lower HR –Bronchial smooth muscle constricts –raise secretions –Pupils constrict Authorcstewart12 ID170718 Card SetExam 1 Descriptionphysics of pulm, A&P, and diff of pulm Updated2012-09-15T16:55:16Z Show Answers