1. What are the two main components of blood?
    Name the formed elements

    • Formed elements:
    • Ertyrocytes (RBCs)
    • Leukocytes (WBCs)
    • Platelets
  2. Name the important characteristics of Plasma and what blood transports
    90% water- solvent for carrying other substances, absorbs heat

    Electrolytes: pH buffering, osmotic balance

    Plasma Protiens: Albumin (buffer) is most common, then globulins (antibodies), and fibrinogen (clotting of blood)

    Transports: nutrients, waste products of metabolism, respiratory gases, hormones
  3. Describr this formed element and its functionImage Upload 1
    Erythrocytes (RBCs)

    • Gas Transport via hemoglobin (Hb)
    • -transports about 60% of body's O2

    Anucleate when mature

    Lifespan 100-120 days

    4.5 -5.5 mil per mm3
  4. Name the two types of Leukocytes and what they are
    • Granular: granules stain differently with Wright's Stain
    • -neutrophils
    • -eosinophils
    • -basphils

    • Agranular: no visible cytoplasmic granules
    • -Lymphocytes
    • -Monocytes
  5. Name the leukocytes from most common to least common
    Never Let Monkeys Eat Bananas

    • Neutrophils
    • Lymphocytes
    • Monocytes
    • Eosinophils
    • Basophils
  6. Describe this YELLOW ARROW leukocyte and its function(s)
    Image Upload 2
    Neutrophil: multilobed "crazy" nuclei, pale lilac cytoplasm

    Phagocytize bacteria- numbers increase dramatically during acute infections

    50-70% of leukocyte population

    * takes up both basic and acidic dyes
  7. Describe this RED ARROW leukocyte and its function(s)
    Image Upload 3
    Eosinophil: bilobed nucleus, looks like alien eyes or dumbbell, stain red or orange in Wright's dye, large granules

    Kills parasytic worms; complex role in allergy and asthma (reduces inflammation)

    2-4% of leukocyte population
  8. Describe this BLUE ARROW leukocyte and its function(s)
    Image Upload 4
    Monocyte: nucleus is U or kidney shaped, gray/blue crytal like cytoplasm, largest leukocyte

    Phagocytosis into macrophages in tissues; increase dramatically during chronic infections like TB

    3-8% of leukocyte population
  9. Describe thisĀ  GREEN ARROW leukocyte and its function(s)Image Upload 5
    Lymphocyte: nucleus is spherical or indented with little dark bllue/purple cytoplasm, approx size of RBC

    smallest of the leukocytes

    produce antibodies (gives rise to plasma cells): mount immune system reponse by direct attack or via antibodies

    25%+ of leukocyte population
  10. Describe this leukocyte and its function(s)Image Upload 6
    Basophil: nucleus lobed in U or S shape with indentations, large dark purple granules in basic dyes

    release histomine (increases inflammation) and other mediators of inflammation; contain heparin

    less than 1% leukocyte population
  11. Name each leukocyte!
    Image Upload 7
    • A: Basophil
    • B. Lymphocyte
    • C. Monocyte
    • D. Neutrophil
    • E. Eosinophil
    • D. Erythrocytes
  12. What are those tiny purple spots in this slide?Image Upload 8
    Platelets (thrombocytes): fragments of megakaryocytes

    seal small tears in blood vessels; instrumental to clotting

    platelets + fibrin = clot

    300,000 per mm3
  13. What is wrong with this Erythrocyte?Image Upload 9
    Sickle Cell anemia
  14. Who is the universal donor and who is the universal recipient?
    Name the most common and least common blood types
    Universal Donor: O-

    Universal Recipient: AB+

    Most common: O(+)

    Least Commone: AB (-)
  15. Describe blood typing
    Antigens or Antigutinogens: determines blood type by clotting/clumping

    Antibodies or Agglutinins: antibodies in plasma; the opposite of Antigens (what doesn't like that blood type)

    Rh- 85% of the population is rh +

    • A blood type: A antigen, Anti-B (antibody)
    • B blood type: B antigen, Anti-A (antibody)
    • AB blood type: A and B antigen, NO ANTIBODY
    • O Blood type: NEITHER ANTIGEN, Anti-A and anti-B(antibody)
  16. What is the average blood volume of adult male and adult female?
    • Male: 5-6L
    • Female 4-5L
  17. What determines whether blood is bright red or dull red?
    How much oxygen it has: bright red is is full of O2, dull red is O2 deficient
  18. List the four types of nutrients found is Plasma, the two gases, and the three ions
    • 1. Glucose
    • 2. Fatty Acids
    • 3. Amino Acids
    • 4. Vitamins

    • GASES:
    • 1. O2
    • 2. CO2

    • IONS:
    • 1. Calcium Ca2+
    • 2. Magnesium Mg2+
    • 3. Sodium Na+
Card Set
A&P II Lab exam 1