Evaluation 226

  1. Definition of ideal posture
    least amount of muscular activity and least amount of stress on connective tissues
  2. Open chain concept
    • non-weight bearing
    • distal segment freely moveable
  3. Closed chain concept
    • weight bearing
    • distal segment fixed on stable object
  4. What are the 3 types of muscle function?
    • Concentric (accelerate)
    • Eccentric (decelerate)
    • Isometric (stabilize)
  5. Agonist muscle
    primary mover
  6. Antagonist muscle
    oppose primary mover
  7. Synergist muscle
    assist primary mover
  8. Stabilizer muscle
    support and stabilize primary mover
  9. Neutralizer muscle
    counteracts unwanted actions of related musculature
  10. Muscle Length-Tension Relationship
    • the amount of force a muscle can generate from a certain position
    • dependant on the number of cross bridges of Actin and Myosin
    • Affects Force-Couple
    • Alters proprioceptive input to CNS
  11. Force-Couple Relationships
    • Muscles performing according to their classification with a particular movement
    • closely dependant upon length-tension relationships
    • dysfunction may alter proprioceptive input to CNS
  12. Proprioception
    Mechanoreceptors in tissue that convert mechanical stimulation into electrical information
  13. Reciprocal Inhibition
    • A chronically tight muscle causes decreased neural drive in its antagonist
    • This alters the Force Couple, creating substitution by the synergists and neutralizers
    • In turn, producing a synergistic dominance
  14. Synergistic Dominance
    • Synergist compensates for the Prime Mover to maintain force production
    • this further alters functional posture
    • this can also alter joint arthrokinematics via muscles firing out of sequence
  15. Arthrokinetic Inhibition
    • Neuromuscular occurrence whereas joint dysfunction inhibits muscles surrounding that joint
    • not necessarily pain inhibition but very similar
  16. Muscle Imbalances
    • One overactivated, shortened and tightened
    • The other, inhibited and weakened
    • chronic imbalance may lead to adaptive changes in posture and function
  17. plumb line
    a string and pendulum that hangs perpendicular to surface
  18. Causes of postural dysfunction
    • neurologic
    • hyper/hypo mobility of joints
    • injury/pain/stiffness
    • ADL's/work/athletics
    • developmental or congenital
  19. Muscle Tightness testing
    • subjective fell or athlete feedback
    • objective goniometric evaluation/flexibility testing
    • linear measurements such as girth
  20. Articular Deviations testing
    • subjective visual inspection - use of plumb line
    • objective ROM evaluation with goniometer or inclinometer
    • palpable deformity
  21. Functional Abnormalities testing
    • subjective gait or athletic activity assessment
    • utilize coaching "experts"
  22. Compensatory Postures/Movements testing
    • body's ability to adapt to obtain function due to pain, adhesion, or deformity
    • may result as consequence of activity
    • may be acquired from use of equipment/uniform
  23. ECTomorph
    thin, increased joint mobility, decreased joint stability
  24. ENDomorph
    stocky, decreased joint mobility, increased joint stability
  25. Mesomorph
    average to muscular, WNL with mobility and stability
  26. Postural Assessment of Head
    • perpendicular to floor (head and neck)
    • Natural movement vs. compensatory movement
    • cervical spine is concave to anterior side
  27. Postural Assessment of Shoulders
    • level (dominant may be depressed)
    • Scapular positioning (positioned over ribs T2-T7)
    • Slight kyphosis (posterior curvature) to ribs
    • Palms are toward thighs in relaxed state
  28. Postural Assessment of Lumbro-Thoracic
    • Kyphosis - too much convexity, may be related to bone density
    • Lordosis - anterior pelvic positioning, weak abdominal musculature
    • Scoliosis - lateral spinal curvature
  29. Postural Assessment of Pelvis
    Level with shoulders and/or ground
  30. Postural Assessment of Knee
    - Extension capabilities -
    • - valgum <180
    • - varum >195
    • - recurvatum (lateral plane)
  31. Postural Assessment of Knee
    - patellar positioning -
    • slight valgus curvature is normal
    • excessive valgus "squinting" or varus "frog eyed"
    • Q-Angle = center of femur to middle point of patella, center of patella to tibial tuberosity (Males = 13d, Females = 18 d)
  32. Postural Assessment of Ankle
    • Weight bearing and non-weight bearing (NWB)
    • Tibial alignment
    • Note lateral malleolus position is slightly posterior
  33. Postural Assessment of Foot
    • Hind foot: calcaneal position var/val, Achilles line of pull
    • Midfoot: pes cavus or pes planus, domed appearance of dorsum of foot
    • Forefoot: all toes are straight and flat, all are touching ground, great toe is longest
  34. Leg Length Discrepancy
    • Structural (physical length of limb) - measure ASIS to distal medial malleolus
    • Functional (torsion, obliquity, etc) - measure umbilicus to distal medial malleolus
  35. Genu Varum
    • bow legged
    • lateral angulation of femur and tibia
  36. Genu Valgum
    • knock-kneed
    • medial angulation of femur and tibia
Card Set
Evaluation 226
Exam One