1. introspection
    a systematic examination of subjective mental experiences that requires people to inspect and report on the content of their thoughts.
  2. structuralism
    An approach to psychology based on the idea that conscious experience can be broken down into its basic underlying components.
  3. Stream of consciousness
    A phrase coined by William james to describe each person's continous series of ever-changing thoughts.
  4. functionalism
    An approach to psychology concerned with the adaptive purpose, or function, of mind and behavior
  5. evolutionary theory
    A theory presented by the naturalist Charles Darwin; it views the history of a species in terms of the inherited, adaptive value of physical characteristics, of mental activity, and of behavior.
  6. Adaptations
    In evolutionary theory, the physical characteristics, skills, or abilities that increases the chances of reproduction or surivival and are therefore likely to be passed along to future generations.
  7. Natural Selection
    In evolutionary theory, the idea that those who inherit characteristics that help them adapt to their particular environments have a selective advantage over those who do not.
  8. gestalt theory
    A theory based on the idea that the whole personal experience is different from simply the sum of its constituent elements.
  9. Unconscious
    The mental processes that operate below the level of conscious awareness
  10. psychoanalysis
    A method developed by Sigmund Freud that attempts to bring the contents of the unconscious into conscious awareness so that conflicts can be revealed.
  11. Behaviorism
    A psychological approach that emphasizes the role of environmental forces in producing behavior
  12. Cognitive Psychology
    The study of how people think, learn, and remember.
  13. Cognitive neuroscience
    The study of the neural mechanisms (mechanisms involving the brain, nerves, and nervous tissue) that underlie thought, learning, and memory
  14. social psychology
    The study of how people are influenced by their interactions with others.
  15. To be a respectable scientific discipline, psychology should be concerned with what people and other animals do-in other words, with observable actions
  16. Psychology should be concerned with the way behavior helps people adapt to their environments
  17. psychology should be concerned with the way in which people's thoughts affect their behavior
  18. To understand behavior, psychologists need to understand the social contexts in which people act
  19. Because the sim ios greater than the parts, psychologists should study the entirety of how we make sense of the world.
  20. Psychologists should study the "pieces" that make up the mind
  21. To understand behavior, psychologists should study people's unconscious mental processes.
  22. Scientific method
    A systematic procedure of observing and measuring phenomena (observable things) to answer questions about what happens, what causes it, and why
  23. Replication
    Repetition of an experiment to confirm the results.
  24. Serendipity
    Unexpectedly finding things that are valuable or agreeable.
  25. Descriptive studies
    A research method that involves observing and nothing the behavior of people or other animals to provide a systematic and onjective analysis of the behavior.
  26. Naturalistic observation
    A type of descriptive study in which the researcher is a passive observer, making no attempt to change or alter ongoing behavior.
  27. Participant observation
    A type of descriptive study in which the researcher is actively involved in the situation.
  28. Observer bias
    Systematic errors in observation that occur because of an observer's expectations.
  29. Experiementer expectancy effect
    Actual change in the behavior of the people or nonhuman animals being observed that is due to the expectations of the observer.
  30. Correlational studies
    A research method that examines how variables are naturally related in the real world, without any attempt by the researcher to alther them or assign causation between them.
  31. Directionality problem
    A problem encountered in correlational studies, the researchers find a relationship between two variables, but they cannot determine which variable may have caused changes in the other variable.
  32. Third Variable Problem
    A problem that occurs when the researcher cannot directly manipulate variables; as a result, the researcher cannot be confident that another, unmeasured variable is not the actual cause of differences in the variables of interest.
  33. Confound
    Anything that affects a dependent variable and may unintentionally vary between the ecperiemtnal conditions of study.
  34. Longitudinal studies
    A research method thst studies the same participants multiple times over a period of time.
  35. Cross-sectional studies
    A research method that compares participants in different groups at the same time.
  36. Internal validity
    The extent of which the data collected in a study address the reseatch hypothesis in the way intended.
  37. Reliability
    The extent to which a measure is stable and consistent over time in similar conditions.
  38. Central tendency
    A measure that represents the typical response or the behavior of a group as a whole.
  39. inferential statistics
    A set of procedures used to make judgements about whether differences actually exist between sets of numbers.
  40. Neurons
    The basic units of the nervous system; cells that receive, integrate, and transmit information in the nervous system. They operate through electrical impulses, communicate with other neurons through chemical signals, and form neural networks.
  41. Central nervous system
    The brain and spinal cord.
  42. peripheral nervous system
    All nerve cells in the body that are not part of the central nervous system. The peripheral nervous system includes the somatic and autonomic nervous system.
  43. neurotransmitters
    naturally occurring chemicals in the nervous system that transmit information between neurons
  44. Axon terminals        
    contains sacs of neurotransmitters
  45. Neurotransmitters        
    naturally occurring chemicals in the nervous system that transmit information between neurons
  46. Receptors       
    located in the postsynaptic membrane. When a neurotransmitter binds to the receptor, an excitatory or inhibitory signal is produced
  47. Spinal Cord          
    • (1) conveys information to and from the PNS to the brain (incoming sensory data and outgoing movement and commands to muscles)         
    • (2) coordinates spinal reflexes, whoch are simple automatic functions not involving the brain
  48. Brainstem         
    • -basic survival functions
    • -breathing, swallowing, urinating         
    • -level of arousal/sleepiness
  49. Cerebellum (back of brain)           
    • -essential for movement          
    • -controls balance         
    • -allows us to conduct learned movements unconsciously
  50. Subcortical brain structures       
    play a key part in psychological functions
  51. Hypothalamus         
    affectss internal functioning (blood temperature, blood pressure, basic drives)
  52. Thalamus        
    sensory relay
  53. Hippocampus         
    formation of memories
  54. Amygdala       
    emotinoal associations
  55. basal ganglia       
    planning and producing of movement
  56. Cerebral cortex
    • -outer wrinkly cover of the brain          
    • -most important brain structure, underlies complex mental activity          
    • -seat of complex
    • cognitions           
    • -consists of two hemispheres (right and left)
  57. Corpus Callosum           
    -connected by a band of neurons called the corpus callosum, that enables the two hemispheres to communicate           -cutting ther corpus callosum causes "split brain"
  58. occipital lobe                        
    •   -back portion of the head                 
    • -primarily involved in vision
  59. pariental lobe                           

    • -located in the back half of the brain                  
    • -important for the sense of touch    
  60. Hemineglect                   
    • -syndrome caused by damage to the right parietal region                  
    • -patients fail to notice anything on their left
    • sides        
  61. Temporal Lobes                         
    • -located above the ear                  
    • -responsible for hearing
  62. Frontal loves              
    • -located at the front of the brain                  
    • -involving in planning and movement
  63. Prefrontal cortex   
    • -region of the frontal lobes         
    • -responsible for rational activity         
    • -and: appropriate social behavior, attention, decision making, personality
  64. antisocial personality disorder
    • -disorder characterized by lack of empathy         
    • -people diagnosed with APD show decreased activity in the right prefrontal cortex
  65. Prefrontal Cortex and adolescent brain
    • -prefrontal cortex is not fully developed in adolescents  
    • -assocaited with difficulties in decision-making and self-control         
    • -continues to mature into the 20s
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