SA Med I

  1. In what parts of the US is Histoplasma capsulatum usually found?
    River valleys of central US
  2. What is the main route of infection of Histoplasmosis?
  3. What cells does Histoplasma capsulatum infect?
    Intracellularly macrophages (pulmonary)
  4. What type of response does a Histoplasma infection cause to the tissue it is infecting?
    Granulomatous (pyogranulomatous)
  5. What is the most common form of Histoplasma infection?
    Subclinical (self limiting)
  6. What is seen in the least common form (Acute pulmonary) of histoplasmosis?
    Moderately enlarged hilar lymph nodes
  7. What are the two most common clinical signs associated with the intestinal form of histoplasmosis?
    • Intractable diarrhea
    • Progressive weight loss
  8. What is the most common form of histoplasmosis in cats?
    Disseminated form (extrapulmonary)
  9. What is required for a definitive diagnosis of Histoplasmosis?
    Cytology or histopathology (ID organism)
  10. In histoplasma cytology, what results from shrinkage of cytoplasm from cell wall during fixation?
    Clear halo or "pseudocapsule" develops
  11. What is the preferred treatment for Histoplasmosis?
  12. What treatment for Histoplasmosis is better for penetration of eyes and CNS?
  13. In what parts of the US is Blastomyces dermatitidis usually found?
    River valleys of central US (within 1/4 mile of water)
  14. What is the primary source of infection of Blastomycosis?
  15. What are the four most common sites in dogs of extrapulmonary dissemination of blastomycosis?
    • Lymph nodes
    • Skin
    • Eyes
    • Bones
  16. What is necessary for definitive diagnosis of blastomycosis?
    ID of organism
  17. What type of serology provides a better presumptive diagnosis of blastomycosis?
    Antigen testing
  18. What is the best treatment for blastomycosis?
  19. What is the best treatment of ocular or CNS forms of blastomycosis?
  20. Where in the US is Coccidiomycosis usually seen?
    Dry desert southwest
  21. Where is the disseminated form of coccidiomycosis common in the dog? cat?
    • Dog - bones
    • Cat - Skin
  22. What is usually necessary for presumptive diagnosis of coccidiomycosis? Definitive diagnosis?
    • Presumptive - Serology
    • Definitive - ID organism
  23. What type of treatment may be required for disseminated form of coccidiomycosis?
    Lifelong -azole therapy
  24. What is the most common systemic fungal disease in cats?
  25. How are most cats infected with cryptococcus?
    Dissemination from nasal cavity
  26. What clinical signs are commonly seen with a cryptococcus nasal infection in cats?
    • Firm swellings over bridge of nose
    • Stertorous breathing
  27. What are the preferred sites of cryptococcal dissemination?
    • Skin
    • CNS
    • eyes
  28. How is a presumptive diagnosis of cryptococcosis acquired?
    Detection of capsular antigen
  29. What organism causes Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever in the dog?
    Rickettsia rickettsii
  30. The majority of dogs infected with RMSF develop what type of disease?
  31. What are some common clinical signs associated with RMSF?
    • Fever
    • Depression
  32. What is often the only or most prominent feature of RMSF?
    Neutrophilic polyarthritis (inflammation of the joints)
  33. What is a consistent finding in the CBC of a dog with RMSF?
  34. How is RMSF diagnosed?
    • Positive serum antibody titers (IFA) 
    • AND clinical signs
  35. What is the most commonly used antibiotic to treat RMSF and canine ehrlichiosis?
  36. What organism is the cause of Canine Monocytic Ehrlichiosis?
    E. canis
  37. What is the most prominent clinical sign associated with canine ehrlichiosis (acute phase)?
  38. What is the main problem associated with canine ehrlichiosis (chronic phase)?
    Immune reactions
  39. What are the most common CBC findings of a dog with canine ehrlichiosis?
    • Anemia
    • Thrombocytopenia
  40. How do you obtain a presumptive diagnosis of canine ehrlichiosis?
    • Positive serology
    • AND clinical signs
  41. What other problems often are associated with idiopathic laryngeal paralysis?
    • Esophageal dysfunction
    • Generalized neuropathy
  42. Is most polyneuropathy associated with laryngeal paralysis life limiting?
    No, weakness and deficits may exist
  43. What anatomic abnormalities are associated with brachycephalic airway syndrome?
    • Stenotic nares
    • Elongated soft palate
    • Everted laryngeal saccules
    • Laryngeal collapse
    • Hypoplastic trachea (English Bulldog)
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SA Med I
SA Med I