Respiratory system-anatomy

  1. Respiratory system
    • >Function is to transport O2 around the body
    • >oxygen is carried in blood via circulatory system
    • >CO2 leave the tissues cells as waste taken to lungs to be excreted
    • > Blood maintain homeostasis by regulating blood Ph as coz is excreted.
    • >overall function of RS is gas exchange, others include warming, pruifying, humidifying the air as it travels thru the passages.
    • >Ensures air in lungs is warm, damp & less irritants
    • >Structurally divided into 2 compartment
  2. Cardiopulmonary responsibilities
    >RS collects O2 from the capillaries in lungs and excretes CO2 from capillaries in blood -via breathing

    >cardiovascular system transports O2 to body's tissues/cells and myocardium picks up CO2 and transport it to lungs for excretion.

    >CVS uses blood as carrier of gases transporting to lungs.
  3. Process of gas exchange
    > gas exchange occurs via diffusion as O2/CO2  are moved between the blood & lungs.

    consists of pulmonary circulation and systemic circulation
  4. Pulmonary circulation
    Breathing in process

    • >Pulmonary circulation leaves teh heart O2 poor
    • >travel to the lungs
    • >O2 diffuses across lungs to blood and CO2 leaves the blood and enter the lungs
    • >Blood returns to the heart rich in O2
  5. Systemic circulation
    • >SC leaves he heart O2 rich
    • >travels to the tissues/cells
    • >O2 diffuses across to the cells & CO2 leaves the tissues and enters blood. 
    • >blood returns to the heart as O2 poor
  6. Stucture of respiratory system
    Upper respiratory system (URTI)

    • >Nose
    • >Nasal cavity
    • >Sinuses
    • >Pharynx

    • Lower respiratory sytem (LRTI)
    • >Larynx
    • >Trachea
    • >Bronchi 
    • >Lungs
    • >Alveoli
  7. Respiratory zone
    Gas exchange occurs here

    • >bronchoiles
    • >alvelor
    • >ducts
    • >alveorlar sacs & alveoli
  8. Conducting zone
    The passageway where air travels

    • >Nose
    • >nasal cavity
    • >sinuses
    • >Pharynx
    • >Larynx
    • >trachea
    • >bronchi
    • >Lungs
  9. Nose - nasal cavity
    • >divided by nasal septum
    • >surrounded by sinuses that assist with speech sounds, produce mucous which drains into nasal cavity
    • >air enter nasal cavity via nostrils
    • >Olfactory receptors located in nasal function is to provide a sense of smell
    • >Muscosa rests on a thin wall of veins, function is to warm the air as it passes
    • >Muscous, acts as deterent to pathogens, trapping invading foreign debri.
    • >Debri destroyed by enzymes found in mucous.
    • >Cilia prevent contaminated mucous entering lungs
    • >Palate separates nose from oral cavity
  10. Pharynx - throat
    > continuous muscular organ responsible for movement of food & fluid.
  11. Larynx 
    • > channels for food and air.
    • >Epiglottis is an elastin cartilage that ensures food/ liquids traves into the oeshagus instead of to the lungs.
  12. Trachea (windpipe)
    • >consists of rings of hyaline cartilage 
    • >Rings support the walls of trachea, keeping it open during time of exertion/rapid breathing
    • >ring also assists oeshagus to expand during swallowing of large pieces of food.
    • >line with cilia
  13. Bronchi (bronchus)
    • >Trachea divides R & L bronchi
    • >Break into smaller subdivisions to the aveoli
    • >R brochus is wide, shorter, straighter
    • >R brochus is more likely to incur foreign body.
  14. Lungs
    • >R lung has 3 lobes
    • >L lung has 2 lobe

    • >Brochi enter lung and divide into samller branches ending with brochoiles. (respiratory tree)
    • >The ability to expand and recoil as air oves in/out is dependent upon elastic tissue
  15. Pluera/membrane
    • > each lung is covered in a membrane called visceral pluera
    • >Wall of thoracic cavity is covered in parietal pleura
    • > both membrane produce slippery, viscous secretion that aids the movement ot the lungs without causing any fraction
    • >may become inflammed causing pain and difficulty breathing ( pluerisy).

    > the ability of lungs to relax and expand freely is dependent upon the presence of pleural fluid
  16. Alveoli 
    • >thin walls 
    • >enables air to move through them
    • >surface is coated in water like liquid, moist
    • >Expand during inhaling inresponse to incoming air
    • >Recoil back to orginal size during exhaling
    • >Surface of alveoli are pulmonary capillaries
    • >Pulmonary capillaries and alveoli combine to form the respiratory membrane
    • >Allowing O2 to diffuse from alveoli to capillaries and Co2 to diffuse from capillaries to alveoli
    • >alveoli defend against pathogen
    • > produce surfactant
  17. Surfactant
Card Set
Respiratory system-anatomy
Oxygenation two