what is one of the most prevalent parasites infecting warm-blooded vertebrates, and cats are the only species that can complete its life cycle?
How do cats acquire T.gondii?
ingestion (any life stage) and transplacentally
what are two main presentations for cats with toxoplasmosis?
- small bowel diarrhea (self limiting)
- fatal extraintestinal
What are 3 main systems effected by toxoplasmosis?
Liver, Lung, CNS (and eyes)
What is chemistry finding that would lead clinician to suspect toxoplasmosis?
elevated CK due to cysts in muscle tissue
How can you definitively diagnose toxoplasmosis?
see organism on biopsy (difficult to find)
Are identification of toxoplasmosis cysts in a fecal sample a definitive diagnosis?
no, only suggestive
Serology/antibody titers do not definitively diagnose toxoplasmosis, but which Ab correlates best w/clinical infection? Why is serology of limited value?
- antibodies present even in healthy cats and stay positive for life (even w/tx)
What is tx of choice for toxoplasmosis? Response should be quick unless which systems are affected?
clindamycin; slower for CNS/eye
Which forms of toxo have poorest prognosis?
Why is zoonosis rarely associated with feline contact?
cats only shed for days/weeks after inoculation but then rarely repeat shedding in feces; cats groom themselves so not often on fur
dogs with clinical T. gondii present similar to cats; however they rarely are clinical unless what? do they shed oocytes in feces like cats?
- no fecal shedding in dogs
do dogs pass oocysts of neospora in feces?
How do dogs acquire neospora?
- ingest bradyzoite
What is primary signs seen in dogs with neospora infection? Is it fatal?
- neurological signs
- hind limb extension, ascending paralysis
- untreated is fatal
List 3 clinical features of neospora.
- muscle atrophy
- multifocal CNS disease
What is the concern w/giving glucorticoids in patients who may have neospora?
steroids can activate bradyzoites in tissue cysts
What is definitive diagnosis for neospora?
see organism in CSF or tissue
What is treatment of choice? what is prognosis with tx?
- clindamycin (same as toxo)
- many still die with tx, better if before CNS signs
Is toxoplasmosis and/or neospora associated w/human abortions?
What connection do dogs and cows have with neospora?
- dogs give to cattle if poop in their feed
- cow to dog if dog eats infected bovine placenta
What infectious organism mimics IMHA? dogs and/or cats?
- dogs only in the US
what is the vector for babesia?
What breeds are more prone to babesia infection?
what are important clinical features of babesia? Acute or chronic presentation?
- intravascular hemolytic/regen. anemia
- 2ndary IMHA
- thrombocytopenia, elevated bilirubin
what are available diagnostics for babesia?
- PCR to NC state
- Antibody serology/IFA --> show increasing titers
- definitive w/demonstration on blood smear
how is babesia treated?
- supportive (give blood?)
- multiple drugs used (azithromycin, atovaquone)
- prevent w/tick control
what makes a dog more prone to babesia?