What is the causative agent of lyme disease and how is it transmitted?
- borrelia burgdorferi
- tick borne disease
What is the prevalence of lyme disease? How many show clinical signs?
- >90% of clinically affected dogs are found in NE coastal states
- only 5% of seropositive dogs show clinical signs
Are dogs the primary or incidental host of lyme disease?
How long does the tick need to be attached to transmit lyme?
How does borrelia disseminate through the body?
lives intracellularly in skin and spreads via connective tissue (not hematogenously)
True or False: most dogs in endemic areas have serologic evidence of exposure to Borrelia but never develop clinical signs.
what is clinical feature of lyme disease? What other common diseases coincide w/these signs?
- shifting leg lameness; nonerosive polyarthritis
- tick born dz like RMSF, ehrlichia; and immune mediated arthritis
What is the fatal form of lyme disease?
lyme nephritis --> ARF
What are helpful diagnostic tools for lyme?
- antibody titer (ELISA or IFA)
- ELISA preferred screening test
how is lyme treated?
do current SNAP tests distinguish between Ab from exposure and vaccination for lyme dz?
yes they can distinguish
What is the sensitivity and specificity of lyme snap tests?
- hi sensitivity (catches all positives)
- low specificity (not confirmatory)
if dog presents with shifting leg lameness and positive snap test, can you definitively say the symptoms are caused by lyme disease?
no, only highly suggestive
What is the most accurate diagnostic test for lyme? what is best screening tool?
- western blot most accurate (confirmatory if + for Ab and has clinical signs)
- ELISA best screen
Is routine vaccination recommended for prevention of lyme disease?
no, even in endemic areas the vx is debatable
True or False: Infected dogs/cats do NOT directly transmit Borrelia to humans.
What are the 4 most common serovars of Leptospirossa?
What are universal features of lepto serovars?
- ability to colonize proximal renal tubules
- results in prolonged renal carrier state w/urine shedding
What are method of exposure?
- mucocutaneous (most common)
- transplacental, venereal, bite-wound transmission
What are primary targets for lepto? What are key features of infections here?
- kidney and liver
- vasculitis from acute endothelial injury; ARF; acute hepatopathy
what are diagnostic tools for leptospirosis?
- serology/micro agglutination
- titers of 1:800 is highly indicative; 1:400 are suggestive
how is lepto treated? in patient or out?
- in patient (short term dialysis may be needed)
- penicillin to rid lepto in blood; doxy for urine shedding
what is prognosis for lepto?
successful if adequate supportive fluid tx and penicillin is started early enough; liver function can be fully restored if pt survives but kidney may have chronic residual effects
Are routine vaccinations for lepto recommended?
yes, but only protects against 4 common serovars (no cross protection for others)
What is gold standard test for brucellosis?
positive blood culture
do animals infected with brucellosis typically show signs?
how is brucellosis treated?
- use two antibiotics bc tx is difficult
- add fluroquinalone for refractory cases
What is vector for bartonella? dogs and/or cats?
fleas and ticks on dogs and cats
where does bartonella reside in the body?
hemotropic, intracellular in RBC
Is bartonella easily treated with antibiotics?
- resistance is high, resistant to immune system too
- persists in blood and spread to tick/flea vectors
What is zoonotic concern with bartonella?
Cat Scratch Fever in immunocrompromised humans