PSYC 320 Lesson 7

  1. What activities are included in the cognition term?
    remembering, classifying, dreaming
  2. The main difference between domain-general changes and domain-specific changes is that:
    the former term accounts for transformations across all types of knowledge and the latter accounts for transformations within each type of knowledge
  3. Due to his background, Piaget's theory of cognition has a distinctly ______ flavor.
  4. Piaget held that all individuals:
    move through the same sequences of stages
  5. What Piagetian term is most similar to idea?
  6. The ability to find objects that have been moved while out of sight (invisible displacement) is achieved in Piaget's:
    mental representation stage
  7. Animism is...
    attributing the characteristics of living things to objects
  8. The child who believes that the liquid in the taller container is greater in volume than the same liquid poured from the broader container has failed to develop:
  9. Seriation is defined as:
    the ability to arrange items along a quantitative dimension, such as length or weight
  10. The term mental rotaitons means:
    the ability to align one's frame to match another person's in a different orientation
  11. Cognitive maps are defined as:
    mental representations of large-scale spaces
  12. ______ is a problem-solving strategy in which adolescents begin with a general theory of all possible factors that could affect an outcome in a problem and deduce specific hypotheses, which they test in an orderly fashion.
    hypothetico-deductive reasoning
  13. _______ is adolescents' belief that they are the focus of everyone else's attention and concern.
    imaginary audience
  14. Vygotsky believed that you could best understand cognition by studying children's:
  15. A Vygotskian classroom promotes...
    cooperative learning, peer collaboration, and reciprocal teaching
  16. Piaget and cognition
    • constructivist approach
    • - biological side of cognitive development
  17. constructivist approach
    Piaget viewed children as discovering, or constructing, virtually all knowledge about their world through their own activity
  18. Vygotsky and cognition
    • - sociocultural theory
    • - viewed human cognition as inherently social and language-based
  19. Piaget's Stages
    • - stages provide a general theory of development
    • - the stages are inariant; they always occur in the same order, and not one stage can be skipped
    • - stages are universal; apply to every child
  20. schemes
    • - specific psychological structures
    • - organized ways of making sense of experienec
    • - change with age
  21. adaptation
    building schemes through direct interaction with the environment
  22. assimilation
    we use our current schemes to interpret the external world
  23. accommodation
    we create new schemes or adjust old ones after noticing that our current way of thinking does not capture the environment completely
  24. organization
    • a process that occurs internally and apart from direct contact with the environment
    • - once children form new schemes, they rearrange them and link them with other schemes
  25. equilibrium
    the basic process underlying the human ability to adapt—is the search for balance between self and the world
  26. disequilibrium
    not having equilibrium
  27. what conditions cause changes in schemes?
    adaptation and organization
  28. sensorimotor stage
    • - spans the first two years of life
    • - Piaget's belief that infants and toddlers "think" with their eyes, ears, hands and other sensorimotor equipment
  29. circular reaction
    • a special means of adapting their first schemes
    • - involves stumbling onto a new experience caused by the baby's own motor activity
    • - reaction is "circular" because infant tries to repeat event again and again
    • - chance becomes strengthened into a new scheme
  30. primary circular reactions
    • simple motor habits centered around the infant's own body
    • - limited anticipation of events
    • - largely motivated by basic needs
    • ex: sucking fist or thumb, open mouth differently for a nipple vs. spoon
  31. secondary circular reactions
    • actions aimed at repeating interesting effects in the surrounding world
    • - imitation of familiar behaviors
    • ex: hitting
  32. tertiary circular reactions
    • - exploration of the properties of objects by acting on them in novel ways
    • - imitation of novel behaviors
    • - ability to search in several locations for a hidden object
  33. object permanence
    the understanding that objects continue to exist when they are out of sight
  34. deferred imitation
    the ability to remember and copy the behavior of models who are not parent
  35. violation-of-expectation method
    • - used to discover what infants know about hidden objects and other aspects of physical reality
    • - researchers habituate babies to a physical event to familiarize them with a situation
    • - heightened attention to the unexpected even suggests that the even is surprised by a deviation from physical reality
    • - therefore, child is aware of that aspect of the physical world
  36. mental representaition
    infants as young as 8 months can recall the locaiton of a hidden object after delays of more than a minute
  37. make-believe play
    • children act out everyday and imaginary activities
    • 1. play increasingly detaches from real-life conditions associated with it
    • 2. play becomes less self-centered
    • 3. play includes more complex combinations of schemes
    • benefits: emotionally integrative function; results in social competency
  38. preoperational stage
    • - spans 2 to 7 yrs old
    • - extraordinary increase in mental representation
    • - make believe play
    • - drawings move from scribbles, to representational forms, to realistic drawings
    • - symbol-real world relations
    • - egocentric and animistic thinking
    • - inability to conserve
    • - lack of hierarchical classification
  39. egocentrism
    the failure to distinguish others' symbolic viewpoints from one's own
  40. centration
    • - their understanding is centered
    • - they focus on one aspect of a situation, neglecting other important features
  41. conservation
    the idea that certain physical characteristics of objects remain the same, even when their outward appearance changes
  42. reversibility
    the ability to go thorugh a series of steps in a problem and then mentally reverse direction, returning to the starting point
  43. magical thinking
    the belief in supernatural powers and creatures
  44. categorization
    a child's everyday knowledge is organized into nested categories at an early age
  45. appearance vs. reality
    • preschoolers have difficulty distinguishing between what an object is when it might look like something else
    • ex: a candle that looks like a crayon; a rock that looks like an egg
  46. hierarchal classifications
    the organization of objects into classes and subclasses on the basis of similarities and differences
  47. concrete operational stage
    • - 7 to 11 years old
    • - major turning point in cognitive development
    • - thought becomes more logical, flexible and organized
    • - passes conservation
    • - more aware of classification hierarchies
    • - seriation
    • - spatial reasoning
  48. seriation
    the ability to order items along a quantitative dimension, such as length or weight
  49. transitive interference
    the concrete operational child can also seriate mentally
  50. mental rotation
    aligning the self's frame to match that of a person in a different orientation
  51. cognitive maps
    children's mental representations of familiar large-scale spaces
  52. limitations of concrete operational thought
    • - children have a gradual mastery of logical concepts (continuum of acquisition)
    • - its not universal, depends on environment
  53. the formal operations stage
    • - 11 yrs +
    • - develop the capacity for abstract, systematic, scientific thinking
    • - hypothetico-deductive reasoning
    • - propositional thought
    • - imaginary audience
    • - personal fable
  54. hypothetico-deductive reasoning
    when faced with a problem, adolescence start with a hypothesis from which they deduce logical, testable inferences
  55. propositional thought
    adolescents' ability to evaluate the logic of propositions (verbal statements) without referring to real-world circumstances
  56. imaginary audience
    adolescents' belief that they are the focus of everyone else's attention and concern
  57. personal fable
    because teenagers are sure that others are observing and thinking about them, they develop an inflated opinion of their own importance - a feeling that they are special and unique
  58. Vygotsky's view of the development of thought
    • - infants are endowed with basic perceptual, attention and memory capacities that they share with other animals
    • - develop in first two years of life through direct contact with environment
    • - rapid language growth leads to profound change in thinking
  59. private speech
    • children's self-directed speech
    • - children use private speech when tasks are appropriately challenging, after they make errors, when they are confused about how to proceed
    • - used to guide their thinking and behavior
  60. zone of proximal development
    a range of tasks too difficult for the child to do alone but possible with the help of adults and more skiled peers
  61. intersubjectivity
    the process whereby two participants who begin a task with different understandings arrive at a shared understanding
  62. scaffolding
    adjusting the support offered during a teaching session to fit the child's current level of performance
  63. guided participation
    a broader concept than scaffolding that refers to shared endeavors between more expert and less expert participants, without specifying the precise features of communication
  64. Vygotsky's view of make-believe play
    • - a unique, broadly influential zone of proximal development
    • - children advance themselves as they try out a wide variety of challenging skills
    • - the central source of development during preschool years
    • - leads development through learning to act in accord with internal ideas
    • - they realize that thinking is separate from objects and that ideas can be used to guide behavior
  65. reciprocal teaching
    • a teacher and two to four students form a collaborative group and take turns leading dialogues on the content of a text passage
    • - group members apply cognitive stages: questioning, summarizing, clarifying and predicting
  66. cooperative learning
    small groups of classmates work toward common goals
Card Set
PSYC 320 Lesson 7
Master Check Questions and Notes