quick study

  1. - Second meeting
    - Met in Philadelphia on May 10, 1775
    - Full slate of thirteen colonies represented
    - Conservative element in Congress still strong
    despite Massachusetts shooting
    - No well-defined sentiment for independence only
    a desire to continue fighting w/ the hope that the king and Parliament would
    consent to a redress of grievances
    - Drafted new appeals (which were spurned) to the
    British people and king
    - Also adopted measures to raise money and to
    create an army and navy (anticipated a possible rebuff)
    Second Continental Congress
  2. - May 1775
    - Small American force under Allen and Benedict
    Arnold surprised + Captured the British garrisons at Ticonderoga and Crown
    - Secured a priceless store of gunpowder and
    artillery for the siege of Boston
    Ethan Allen/Ticonderoga
  3. - A hill seized by colonists in June 1775
    - Was actually Breed’s Hill
    - From this hill they menaced the enemy in Boston
     - Sharpshooting Americans mowed down the frontal
    attack of redcoats
    - Hill was abandoned in disorder due to the
    colonists running out of gunpowder
    Bunker Hill
  4. - July 1775 Continental Congress adopted this to
    profess American loyalty to the crown and beg the king to prevent further
    - Following Bunker Hill King George III shut off
    all hope of reconciliation
    - August 1775 George III officially proclaimed the
    colonists in rebellion deeming the skirmishes treason and punishable by hanging
    Olive Branch Petition, 1775
  5. - Published in 1776
    - Was one of the most influential pamphlets ever
    - Author was radical, a once impoverished
    corset-maker’s apprentice who had come over from Britain a year earlier
    - Became a whirlwind best seller, within a few
    months reached a total of 120,000 copies
    - Flatly branded the shillyshallying of colonists
    as contrary to “common sense”
    - Called for independence and a republic
    Thomas Paine and Common Sense, 1776
  6. - June 7 Congress appointed a committee to prepare
    a formal statement of separation
    - Task fell to Thomas Jefferson
    - Formally approved by the Congress on July 4,
    - Gave his appeal universality by invoking the
    “natural rights” of humankind, not just British rights
    Declaration of Independence
  7. - American rebels = Patriots/Whigs
    - Named after the opposition factions in Britain
    - Fought against the Loyalties/Tories
  8. - Loyalists
    - Named after the dominant political factions in Britain
  9. - 1777 London officials adopted an intricate
    scheme for capturing the vital Hudson River valley (success would allow Britain
    to sever New England from the rest of the states and paralyze the American
     - Main invading force was under
    actor-playwright-soldier “Gentleman Johnny”
    General Burgoyne
  10. - After his repulse at Quebec in 1775 he had
    retreated slowly along the St. Lawrence River back to the Lake Champlain area
    - Was shot in the leg at Quebec
    - Turned traitor in 1780
    General Benedict Arnold
  11. - Ambitious, greedy, unscrupulous and feeling
    - Plotted w/ the British to sell out the key
    stronghold of West Point which commanded the Hudson River, for 6300 Euros and
    an officer’s commission
    - Plot was discovered in the nick of time by
    Arnold's Treason, 1780
  12. - British devised a plan to roll up the colonists
    starting in the S, where the Loyalists were numerous
    - Colony of George ruthlessly overrun 1778-79
    - Charleston, S Carolina fell in 1780 – surrender
    of the city involved the capture of 5000 men, 400 cannon
    British War Strategy
  13. - Scotsman
    - Led a naval establishment consisting of only a
    handful of nondescript ships commanded by officers one of which was him
    - Chief contribution was in destroying British
    merchant shipping and thus carrying the war into the waters around the British
    Admiral John Paul Jones
  14. - British general Cornwallis had fallen back to
    Chesapeake Bay at Yorktown after futile operations in Virginia (Was awaiting
    seaborne supplies and reinforcements)
    - Admiral de Grasse operating w/ a powerful fleet
    in the W Indies, advised the Americans he was free to join w/ them in an
    assault on Cornwallis at Yorktown
    - Washington seized the opportunity, made a swift
    march of 300+ miles to Chesapeake from New York
    - Beset the British by land while de Grasse
    blockaded them by sea
    - Cornwallis was completely cornered
    - Surrendered his entire force of 7000 men,
    October 19, 1781
    Yorktown, 1781
  15. - A French admiral operating w/ a powerful fleet
    in the West Indies
    - Gave the French the chance to cooperate w/ the
    Americans in a brilliant stroke
    - Advised the Americans he could join them in
    assaulting Cornwallis at Yorktown
    - Helped Washington by blockading the British by
    Admiral de Grasse
  16. - After Yorktown many Britons were weary of war
    and increasingly ready to come to terms
    - George III still eager to continue to fight
    - Britain suffered heavy reverses in Indian and W
    - A Whig ministry rather favorable to the
    Americans replaced the Tory regime of Lord North
    - 3 American peace negotiators gathered at Paris:
    Ben Franklin, John Adams, John Jay (had explicit instructions from Congress to
    make no separate peace and to consult w/ French allies at all stages of the
    negotiations – American representatives chafed under this directive)
    - John Jay = suspicious of Old World intrigue;
    unwilling to play France’s game, saw they would betray America’s interests to
    satisfy those of Spain’s; secretly made separate overtures to London
    - British formally recognized the independence f
    the United States
    - Granted generous boundaries, stretching from the
    Mississippi to the Great Lakes to Spanish Florida
    - Loyalists were not to be further persecuted
    - Congress was to recommend to the state legislatures that confiscated Loyalist
    property be restored
    - States vowed to put no lawful obstacles in the
    way of British creditors collecting debts long owed
    Treaty of Paris, 1783
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quick study
quick study