Were dogs the first domesticated animal? How long ago were they domesticated?
What did dogs decend from?
What are three aspects of canine behavior?
- social animals
Why do some people chose to get a pure bred dog over a mixed dog?
some people get a specific bred for a specific purpose or because they want the dog to look a certain way
When purchasing a dog, what do people need to be concerned about with size?
- space in the home
- exercise needs
- local restrictions (some places you rent have size restrictions)
Why do people need to take inconsideration the type hair when purchasing a dog?
- if long hair, grooming will be required
- climate (don't have a long haired dog in a hot environment and vice versa)
Why should an owner take inconsideration the temperament of a certain bred before buying the dog?
some breds are more excitable than others
Where can owners go and who can they talk to about which dog bred is best for them?
- dog shows
How many genetic disorders are there for dogs?
What are different purposes for people getting a dog?
- working dog (herding, retrieving, hunting, protection)
- assistance dog
- show or breeding
What are the different costs of getting a dog?
- price of puppy
- veterinary care
- obedience class
What is the purpose of a crate?
- refuge for a dog
- keeps dogs under control
- housebreaking (dogs don't usually use the bathroom in their crate)
What should a crate NOT be used for?
discipline...should not be puppy jail
What aspects of a family affects the type of dog that would work best?
- owner's age and energy level
- owner's personality
- other household members (are there kids?)
- lifestyle of the owner (sedentary or hectic)
- work schedule
- future additions to family
Where can you obtain a puppy?
- humane society
- breed rescue
- reputable breeder
What should people avoid when buying a puppy?
pet shops and puppy mills
What is the best age to obtain a puppy?
7.5 - 8.5 weeks old
It's okay to buy a dog older than 8.5 weeks as long as the breeder did what?
socialized the dog
What is the different between males and females?
- males are larger, pee on plants, cheaper to neuter
- females come into heat
Why do breeders do temperament testing to puppies?
- to be able to match a puppy to an appropriate home
- educate the new owner about the puppy
When do we start training a puppy?
at 4 weeks old
Why is it important to start training a puppy early?
prevent behavior problems
At what age do obedience classes usually let puppies start classes? Should you start earlier at home?
How do we housebreak a dog?
- teach them where to go
- take them out often
- reward them when they go outside
- use odor neutralizers if they have accidents inside
- be consistent
What happens when you put newspapers down in the house to house break?
teaches the dog that it is okay to go inside
What types of good manners need to be taught to a puppy?
- settle down
- walk on a leash
When you adopt an adult dog, what do they usually always have?
If a veterinary practice is trying to adopt out a dog, what do they need to be careful about?
they are held to higher standards and need to be careful is adopting out an aggressive dog, even have the person adopting sign a form stating they understand the dog is aggressive
What are the three different things dog use for communication?
What are some visual cues dogs use to communicate?
- pawing ground
- facial expressions
What are some olfactory ways dogs communicate?
- urine/feces marking
What are some audible ways dogs communicate?
- ultrasonic sounds other dogs can hear
Can extremes in behavioral traits be problematic?
How are we able to determine the temperament of a puppy?
response to stimuli
What are the two different responses to stimuli and what do they mean?
- excitability: very responsive
- inhibitability: self control, more easily trained and aren't distracted by stimuli
What are the two types of defense reflexes and what do the dogs do with each reflex?
- active: react to stress by biting, freezing, or running away
- passive: rarely bit
Which defense reflexes are desired for protection dogs?
Is response to stimuli an inherited tendency?
Are defense reflexes an inherited tendency?
Do dogs have a hierarchy in their group?
How is the hierarchy expressed in the group of dogs?
visual and auditory cues
Who must be the dominant leader of the pack?
What are the two positions in a hierachy?
- 1 dominant
- the rest are subordinant and accepts the leader
What does a dominant dog look like?
- direct eye contact
- head up, hackles up
- tail up
- ears forward
- biting, growling, mounting
- body slamming
What does a submissive dog look like?
- looks away, head lowered
- lips down
- tail down, ears down and back
- crouches, rolls over
- may urinate small amount
- nudges with its nose, whines
What are the two different types of dogs socially?
- attracted towards people
Are social behaviors inherited?
yes, but can be greatly influenced by experiences
All dogs should be neutered unless they are part of a _____.
When should spays and neuters be done by?
6 months old
What is the tie?
the penis swells up and attaches in the female, stays like this for 10 - 15 minutes
What kind of ovulators are dogs?
How many stages of labor are there?
What is normal behavior for mothers after having their puppies?
- assist pup out of membrane
- chew cord
- lick pup clean
- enable pup to nurse
- manipulatae pup to nest
What are the three stages of labor?
- stage 1: contractions
- stage 2: passing of puppies
- stage 3: passing of placenta
What is the biggest death in puppies?
When a puppy becomes hypothermic, what happens?
it will not eat or nurse
What is some poor nursing care mothers can exhibit?
- not interested in pups
- aggressive towards pups
- accidentally injuries pups
What are some medical problems a mother can have after having her babies?
- insufficient milk supply
- eclampsia (low calcium levels)
What are the different stages of development?
- neonatal stage
- transition stage
- socialization stage
- juvenile period
How long is the neonatal stage?
1 - 2 weeks
Describe the neonatal stage?
- reflex behaviors
- rooting, righting (turning over on back and turning back over)
- seek heat
- anogenital stimulation
What is anogenital stimulation? How is this done?
- stimulating the puppy to urinate and defecate
- mother licks genital area of puppies or we can put a warm wet rags
When is the transition stage?
What happens during the transition stage?
- rapid sensory and motor maturation
- puppy stands
- follows mom
- distress call if separated from group
- can nurse standing up
When does the socialization stage starts and how long does it last?
week 4 - 14 weeks
What happens during the socialization stage?
- play behavior starts
- bite inhibition (learns how to bite and what hurts)
- hierarchy begins within the litter
- bitch regurgitates to start weaning the puppies
- carry objects
- poop and pee away from the nest
If eclampsia is going to be a problem with the mother, when does it usually happen and why?
between 3 - 4 weeks because the puppies are getting bigger and need more milk...draining for the mother
When do we start weaning the puppies?
5 - 6 weeks
When are puppies ready to go to their new home?
7.5 - 8.5 weeks old
What is very important when socializing puppies?
to socialize them with different types of people and different ages
When does fear imprint in the puppy? What does that mean and how do we prevent it?
- between 8 - 10 weeks
- bad experiences within this time will stay with the puppy forever
- socialize the puppy
What is the most important about the first vet appointment?
- usually at 6 weeks old which is when they are the most impressionable and the start of fear imprinting
- it must be a good experience or they will be afraid of the vet forever
Why do breeders do puppy aptitude tests?
- see behavioral tendencies
- help match puppy to new owner
What is the puppy aptitude test? When is it done?
- series of manipulations to see puppies reaction
- done around 7 weeks old
What are the aspects of the puppy aptitude test?
- social attraction
- following - do they follow you when you walk away
- restraint - how do they act to being restrained
- social dominance
- elevation dominance
- touch, sound, sight sensitivity
How do we prevent problems with behavior?
- have a housebreaking procedure
- establish dominance over the dog
- make sure the dog has proper socialization
- train the puppy
Does obedience training train the puppy? What does it really do?
- teaches the owner how to train the puppy
Should the whole family be involved in obedience class?
yes, even the children
When is the juvenile period?
between 4 months and 2 years old
What happens during the juvenile period?
- physical growth
- learning what they can do and not do
- sexual behavior may be seen
- marking behavior develops
When do dogs first go into heat?
- small dogs: 6 - 8 months
- large dogs: 12 - 14 months
Can you teach an old dog new tricks?
yes, do the same as you would for a puppy, it just takes longer
Are behavior problems usually a problem for the dog?
no, they are a problem for the owner
What can behavior problems result in?
getting rid of the dog or surrendering it over to the SPCA which usually results in euthanasia
What are the ways to deal with problems with a dog?
- find a new home
What type of behavior do people usually get help about?
- aggression in all forms
- inappropriate elimination
- destructive behavior
What is the number one problem that people get help for with their dogs
What are the reasons why dogs are given up?
- landlord issues
- no timie
- inadequate facilities
- too many pets
- pet illness
- personal problems
- no homes for littermates
Are behavior problems most common in dogs or cats?
What are some specific behavior problems that causes people to give up their pet?
- house soiling
- destructive inside
- too active
- pesters to go out
- chases people and cars
- destructive outside
- wants too much attention
- too vocal
- not friendly
- jumps on people
Dogs are less likely to be given up if...
- had regular veterinary care
- sexually altered
- participated in obedience training