BIO 140

  1. Environmental Science
    the study of how the natural world works, how our environment affects us, and how we affect our environment.
  2. Natural Resources
    the various substances and energy sources that we take from our environment and that we need to survive.
  3. Renewable Natural Resources
    Sunlight, Wind, Wave energy
  4. Nonrenewable Natural Resources
    Mineral Oars and Cruide Oil
  5. Ecosystem Services
    arise from the noral functioning of natural systems, and although these processes are not meant for our benefit, we could not survive without them.
  6. Agricultural Revolution

    Industrial Revolution
    Two phenomena that triggered a remarkable increase in population size.

    1. Transition from hunter-gatherer lifestyle to an agricultural way of life. Happened around ten thousand years ago.

    2. Began in the mid 1700's....entailed a shift from rural life, animal-powered agriculture, and handcrafted goods to an urban society provisioned by the mass production of factory-made goods and powered by fossil fuels.
  7. Fossil Fuels
    oil, coal, and natural gas
  8. Tragedy of the Commons
    When publicly accessible resources are open to unregulated exploitation, they inevitably become overused and, as a result, are damaged or  depleted.

    Garrett Harden of UCSB in 1968 in the journal Science, titled "The Tragedy of the Commons."
  9. Ecological Footprint
    expresses environmental impact in terms of the cumulative area of biologically productive land and water required to provide the resources a person or population consumes and to dispose of or recycle the waste a person or population consumes and to dispose of or recycle the waste the person or the population produces.
  10. Interdisciplinary Field
    one that borrows techniques from multiple disciplines and brings their research results together into a broad synthesis
  11. Natural Sciences
    disciplines that examine the natural world
  12. Social Sciences
    disciplines that address human interactions and institutions
  13. Environmental Studies
    Encompasses both the natural sciences and social sciences
  14. Environmentalism
    social movement dedicated to protecting the natural world-and, by extension people--from undesirable changes brought about by human actions.
  15. Science
    systematic process for learning about the world and testing our understanding of it....also used to refer to the accumulated body of knowledge that arises from this dynamic process of questioning, observation, testing, and discovery.
  16. Observational Science

    Descriptive Science
    Types of research in which scientists gather basic information about organisms, materials, systems, or processes that are not well known or that cannot be manipulated in experiments
  17. Hypothesis-driven Science
    Once enough general info. is known about a subject, scientists can begin posing more specific questions that ask how and why things are the way they are......

    ......research that proceeds in a more targeted and structured manner, using experiments to test hypotheses within a framework traditionally known as the scientific method.
  18. Hypothesis
    a statement that attempts to explain a phenomenon or answer a scientific question
  19. Predictions
    specific statements that can be directly and unequivocally tested
  20. Experiment
    an activity designed to test the validity of a prediction or a hypothesis. It involves manipulating variables.
  21. Variables
    conditions that change
  22. independent variables
    a variable the scientist manipulates
  23. Dependent Variable
    is affected by the independent variable
  24. Controlled Experiment
    where the scientist controls for the effects of all variables except the one whose effect he or she is testing
  25. Control
    an unmanipulated point of comparison for the manipulated point
  26. Manipulative Experiment
    an experiment in which the researcher actively chooses and manipulates the independent variable
  27. Natural Experiment
    experiments which compare how dependent variables are expressed in naturally different contexts
  28. Correlation
    Statistical not necessarily causation
  29. Peer Review
    Other scientists review and provide comments/criticism on a work
  30. Theory
    widely-accepted, well-tested explanation of one or more cause-and-effect relationships that has been extensively validated by a great amount of research
  31. Paradigm
    Dramatic upheavals in though, where one "paradigm," or dominant view, is abandoned for another
  32. Sustainability
    a guiding principle of modern environmental science....the primary challenge of how to live within our planet's means, such that earth and its resources can sustain us
  33. Natural Capital
    accumulated wealth of resources

    Researches estimate that we are drawing down our planet's natural resources 30% faster than it is being replenished
  34. Biodiversity
    the cumulative number and diversity of living things
  35. Millenium Ecosystem Assessment
    The most comprehensive scientific assessment of the condition of the world's ecological systems and their ability to continue supporting our civilization, completed in 2005. .....Over 2000 of the world's leading environmental scientists from nearly 100 nations 
  36. Cornucopian
    Some people maintain that we will find ways to make Earth's natural resources meet all of our needs indefinitely and that human ingenuity will see us through any difficulty. This view is characterized as Cornucopian.

    In Greek Mythology, cornucopia--literally "horn of plenty."
  37. Cassandras
    People who predict doom and disaster, regarding the sustainability of the human lifestyle on earth
  38. Sustainable Development
    the use of resources in a manner that ssatisfies our current needs but does not compromise the future availability of resources
  39. Triple Bottom Line
    where the goal is not simply the maximization of profit or economic advancement, but also environmental protection and the promotion of social equity
Card Set
BIO 140
BIO 140