EXP Chapter 4

  1. "remember" is associated with _____ tasks
  2. "know" is associated with ______ tasks
  3. the memories we have of our own life.
    autobiographical memory
  4. ______ is not associated with any individual particular
    neurocognitive system in the way that episodic and semantic memory are.
    Autobiographical memory
  5. ______ usually affects only episodic memory and
    not semantic memory
  6. who suffered brain damage in accident? No loss of semantic memory; complete damage to episodic memory.
    Patient KC
  7. learn normally (semantic), but deficits in remembering personal past.
    developmental amnesiacs
  8. Who hypothesized that two separate systems support these different kinds of memories (semantic and episodic)
  9. the neurocognitive memory system that encodes, stores, and retrieves information concerning knowledge of the world
    Semantic memory
  10. neurocognitive memory system that encodes, stores, and retrieves memories of our personal individual experiences.
    Episodic memory
  11. HERA stands for :
    (Hemispheric Encoding/Retrieval Asymmetry)
  12. ______ was more involved in the
    retrieval of information from semantic memory
    left prefrontal cortex
  13. ____is more involved in the retrieval of episodic memory. 
    Right pre-frontal cortex
  14. _____ more involved in encoding into episodic memory.
    Left pre-frontal lobe
  15. is the process of how we activated info from long-term memory and access it when we need it.
  16. Refers to the learning process
  17. how we store information when it is not currently in use
  18. Contends that most natural learning is incidental as opposed to intentional.
    Craik and Lockhart's levels of processing
  19. means that people encode information not by actively trying to remember but rather as by-product of perceiving and understanding the world.
    incidental learning
  20. Means that people actively engage in learning information beccause they know that their memories may be tested.
    Intentional learning
  21. Who gave participants orienting tasks.  Some of
    these tasks asked participants to attend to shallow aspects of stimuli; others to deep aspects of stimuli.
    Craik and Tulving
  22. Do the words rhyme or not?
    Shallow encoding
  23. figuring out the intentions and emotions of
    characters in a Shakespeare play is an example of what type of processing?
    Elaborative processing
  24. maintenance rehearsal leads to what type of processing?
  25. Elaborative processing leads to ______ processing
  26. are a product of how strongly encoded those items were.  What produces more strongly encoded item is
    deeper level of processing
    memory traces
  27. one of the best ways to enforce coding for meaning is to have participants evaluate to-be-remembered items in terms of its value to natural survival.
    survival processing
  28. refers to the fact that memory is better when we generate associations ourselves than when we simply read or see them.
    generation effect
  29. the advantage in memory that distinctive items have over less distinctive items.
    Von Restorff effect
  30. refers to all information present in the memory system.
  31. refers to that part of our stored memories that we
    can retrieve under the present conditions.
  32. We use information present in our current environment, to trigger our memories of past events. 
    Retrieval cues
  33. The participants are asked to to learn under two conditions.

    half of each learning condition are tested under the same conditions, the other half are tested under opposite conditions.
  34. Retrieval of information from memory will be maximized when the conditions at retrieval match the conditions at encoding.
    Encoding specificity
  35. memory for unique events from our personal past.
  36. given specific instructions to forget. Induces inhibition of those items.
    Directed forgetting
  37. occurs when you study some of the information in a
    set of already-learned information but not all of it.
    Part-set cuing
  38. who developed retrieval of induced intuition?
    Michael Anderson and his colleagues
  39. mechanism that actively interferes with and reduces
    the likelihood of recall of particular information. 
  40. target items from practiced category that were practiced.
  41. target items from practiced category that were unpracticed.
  42. target items from the non-practiced condition.
  43. means that you are more likely to remember events or information that is positive when you are in a positive mood

    and more likely to remember events or information that is negative when you are in a negative mood.
    Mood Congruence
  44. Identical experimentally to encoding specificity, but refers to mood states or drug-induced states and learning.
    State-dependent learning
Card Set
EXP Chapter 4
Chapter 4: Episodic memory