Excessive dietary fat leads to what?
increased risk of obesity which leads to an increased risk of diabetes, heart disease, and cancer
Excessive dietary animal fat leads to what?
increased risk of heart disease and diabetes
Excessive added sugar leads to what?
decreased micronutrient intake leading to micronutrient deficiency
Excessive salt intake leads to what?
may lead to increased blood pressure
What is wrong with refined foods?
- they tend to have fewer vitamins and minerals and fibers
- Ex: white bread, sugar cereals
What are the 3 basic principles of planning a diet?
Dietary Reference Intake
- 1 of 2 Keystone Standards
- Standards for nutrient intake that focus on adequacy of intake
2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans
- 1 of 2 Keystone Standards
- Standard for foods and nutrient intake that focuses on prevention of chronic disease
Recommended Dietary Allowances
- how much of a particular nutrient should be consumed on average to receive an adequate amount to prevent deficiency and meet physiological needs
acceptable macronutrients distributions and ranges (AMDR)
Dietary Guideline for weight management
- Balance calories from foods and beverages with calories expended.
- To prevent gradual weight gain over time, make small decreases in food and beverages and increase physical activity
Dietary Guideline for physical activity
- Engage in regular physical activity (at least 30 to 60 minutes most days) and reduce sedentary activity
- Include cardiovascular conditioning, stretching, and resistance exercises for muscle strength and endurance
Food Groups to encourage each day
- At least 2 cups fruit
- At least 2.5 cups vegetables
- At least 3 servings whole grain per day
- At least 3 cups fat-free or low fat milk or equivalent milk products
- Choose a variety of protein foodsAt least 6 tsp of oils (includes oil found naturally in foods such as nuts and olives
Dietary Guidelines for Carbohydrates
- 45 – 65% of total calories
- Fiber 14 g/1000 kcalories
Dietary Guidelines for Fats
- 20 – 35% of total kcalories
- < 10% of total calories from saturated fats (replace with poly and monounsaturated fatty acids, not sugar and refined grain)
- Keep trans fatty acids as low as possible
- < 300 mg cholesterol per day (Egg yolk up to 1 per day)
Dietary Guidelines for Protein
10 - 35% of total kcalorie
Dietary Guidelines for Fluid and Electrolytes
- Follow your thirst and normal beverage consumption at meals.
- Sodium < 2300 mg per day (< 1500 mg if over 50 y.o., African American or have a chronic disease)
- Potassium >4,700 mg per day
Dietary Guidelines for Nutrients of Public Health Concern
Potassium, dietary fiber, calcium and vitamin D
Dietary Guidelines for Alcohol
If you choose to drink alcoholic beverages, do so in moderation (up to one drink/day for women; up to two drinks/day for men
What is MyPlate?
- a pictorial representation of the USDA's food guidance system
- Make half your plate fruits and vegetables
- Make half your grains whole grains
What is required on all food labels?
- the name of the food
- the net amount of the food product in terms of weight, measure or count
- name and address of the manufacturer
- the ingredient list
- Descriptive terms that describe characteristics of the food product
- Examples of nutrient claims are "low fat" or "good source"
- Statements that refer to a relationship between a food or a nutrient naturally rich in the food and its ability to reduce the risk of a disease or health-related condition
- All health claims are reviewed by the FDA and must be supported by strong scientific evidence.
- These statements are similar to health claims but can be made without FDA approval
- These statements can legally be put on labels if they do not mention a disease or symptom, rather they describe a relationship between a nutrient or substance in a food and its role in the body
- "Promotes a healthy heart" is a structure-function claim
What are the 6 classes of nutrients?
carbs, proteins, lipids (fats), vitamins, minerals, water
How many kcalories do carbohydrates have?
How many kcalories do proteins have?
How many kcalories do lipids have?
How many kcalories does alcohol have?
- Carbs, proteins, fats
- Must be broken down in GI tract in order to be absorbed
What is the primary type of digestion in the mouth?
Mechanical digestion - chewing
- secrete substances into the duodenum of the small intestine and aid in digestion
- These include the pancreas, liver, and gall bladder.
- produces chyme
- creates acid that prevents bacterial growth and kills most bacteria consumed with food
- inside surface is not smooth to maximize surface area
- villi line small intestine
Whats absorbed directly in the bloodstream?
Water-soluble nutrients (monosaccharides, amino acids, water soluble vitamins, minerals, and small fatty acids)
What is absorbed in the lymphatic system?
fat-soluble nutrients (such as fat-soluble vitamins, fatty acids, and cholesterol)
- Two kinds of cells
- Endocrine (1%) - secrete hormones like insulin and glucagon
- Exocrine (99%) - secrete pancreatic juices
the production of bile salts and a gate keeper between newly absorbed water soluble nutrients and the rest of the body
fine tuning of water absorption
stimulates the stomach to secrete more hydrochloric acid
stimulates the pancreas to secrete bicarbonate-rich pancreatic juice into the duodenum
stimulates release of bile and pancreatic juices into the small intestine
- stimulate hunger and increases the motility of the stomach when it is empty
- it causes stomach "growling."
The chemical energy in food that can be released to power our bodies?
- the energy in the carbon-hydrogen (C-H) bonds
- found in carbs, proteins, fats, alcohol
- the chemical processes where the body obtains and uses energy from food, specifically the C-H bonds
- first step transfers energy to ATP, second uses energy from ATP to power the body
What are the end products of energy metabolism?
carbon dioxide, water, and energy as ATP
Three basic processes of energy metabolism pathways?
- 1) conversion of energy yielding nutrients to Acetyl CoA
- 2) Acetyl CoA enters the TCA Cycle (Citric Acid Cycle)
- 3) energized H+ carried by NAD and FAD enters Electron Transport Chain