1. autotroph
    an organism that synthesize all its cellular components from simple molecules using the energy obtained from sunlight (photoautotroph) or from the oxidation of inorganic compounds (chemolithotroph)Image Upload 2
  2. heterotroph
    an organism that obtains free energy from the oxidation of organic compounds produced by other organisms 
  3. metabolism
    • The total of all degradative and biosynthetic cellular reactions
    • Combination of catabolism and anabolism
  4. metabolite
    a reactant, intermediate, or product of a metabolic reaction
  5. intermediary metabolism
    In cells, the enzyme-catalyzed reactions that extract chemical energy from nutrient molecules and use it to synthesize and assemble cell components
  6. catabolism
    The degradative metabolic reactions in which nutrients and cell constituents are broken down for energy and raw materials 
  7. anabolism 
    • The reactions by which biomolecules are synthesized from simpler components
    • Building of molecules 
  8. homolytic cleavage
    cleavage of a bond in which each participating atom acquires one of the electrons that formed the bond
  9. radical
    an atom or group of atoms possessing an unpaired electron; also called a free radical
  10. heterolytic cleavage
    cleavage of a bond in which one of two chemically bonded atoms acquires both of the electrons that formed the bond
  11. nucleophile
    a group that contains unshared electron pairs that readily reacts with an electron-deficient group (electrophile). A nucleophile (nucleus-lover) reacts with an electrophile (electron-lover).
  12. electrophile
    a group that contains an unfilled valence electron shell,  or contains an electron-deficient atom. An electrophile (electron-lover) reacts readily with a nucleophile (nucleus-lover)
  13. carbanion
    a negatively charged carbon atom
  14. carbocation
    a positively charged carbon atom; also called a carbonium ion
  15. kinase 
    an enzyme that transfers a phosphoryl group between ATP and another molecule
  16. phosphorylation potential
    The actual free-energy change of ATP hydrolysis under the nonstandard conditions prevailing in a cell
  17. thioester
    an ester of a carboxylic acid with a thiol or mercaptan 
  18. adenylylation
    • is a posttranslational modification that can occur to molecules such as tyrosine residues;
    • involves a phosphodiester bond between a hydroxyl group of the molecule undergoing adenylylation and the phosphate group of the adenosine monophosphate nucleotide
  19. inorganic pyrophosphatase 
    an enzyme that hydrolyzes a molecule of inorganic pyrophosphate; also known as pyrophosphatase
  20. nucleoside diphosphate kinase 
    an enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of the terminal phosphate of a nucleoside 5'-triphosphate to a nucleoside 5'-diphosphate 
  21. adenylate kinase (ADK)
    a phosphotransferase enzyme that catalyzes the interconversion of adenine nucleotides, and plays an important role in cellular energy homeostasis
  22. creatine kinase (CPK)
    • an enzyme expressed by various tissues and cell types.
    • CK catalyses the conversion of creatine and consumes ATP to create PCr and ADP
  23. phosphagens 
    a phosphoguanidine whose phosphoryl group transfer potential is greater than that of ATP; these compounds can therefore phosphorylate ADP to generate ATP. 
  24. electromotive force (emf)
    change in reduction potential 
  25. conjugate redox pair
    an electron donor and acceptor that form a half-reaction. Also called a redox couple
  26. dehydrogenation
    a chemical reaction that involves the removal of hydrogen from a molecule as (H2)
  27. dehydrogenase 
    Enzymes that catalyze the removal of pairs of hydrogen atoms from substrates 
  28. reducing equivalent
    a general term for an electron or an electron equivalent in the form of a hydrogen atom or a hydride ion
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