Second Continental Congress.txt

  1. Second meeting
    Met in Philadelphia on May 10, 1775
    Full slate of thirteen colonies represented
    Conservative element in Congress still strong despite Massachusetts shooting
    No well-defined sentiment for independence only a desire to continue fighting w/ the hope that the king and Parliament would consent to a redress of grievances
    Drafted new appeals (which were spurned) to the British people and king Also adopted measures to raise money and to create an army and navy (anticipated a possible rebuff)
    Second Continental Congress
  2. May 1775Small American force under Allen and Benedict Arnold surprised + Captured the British garrisons at Ticonderoga and Crown PointSecured a priceless store of gunpowder and artillery for the siege of Boston
    Ethan Allen/Ticonderoga
  3. A hill seized by colonists in June 1775Was actually Breed�s HillFrom this hill they menaced the enemy in BostonSharpshooting Americans mowed down the frontal attack of redcoatsHill was abandoned in disorder due to the colonists running out of gunpowder
    Bunker Hill
  4. July 1775 Continental Congress adopted this to profess American loyalty to the crown and beg the king to prevent further hostilitiesFollowing Bunker Hill King George III shut off all hope of reconciliationAugust 1775 George III officially proclaimed the colonists in rebellion deeming the skirmishes treason and punishable by hanging
    Olive Branch Petition, 1775
  5. Published in 1776Was one of the most influential pamphlets ever writtenAuthor was radical, a once impoverished corset-maker�s apprentice who had come over from Britain a year earlierBecame a whirlwind best seller, within a few months reached a total of 120,000 copiesFlatly branded the shillyshallying of colonists as contrary to �common sense�Called for independence and a republic
    Thomas Paine and Common Sense, 1776
  6. June 7 Congress appointed a committee to prepare a formal statement of separationTask fell to Thomas JeffersonFormally approved by the Congress on July 4, 1776Gave his appeal universality by invoking the �natural rights� of humankind, not just British rights
    Declaration of Independence
  7. American rebels = Patriots/WhigsNamed after the opposition factions in BritainFought against the Loyalties/Tories
  8. LoyalistsNamed after the dominant political factions in BritainGeneral Burgoyne1777 London officials adopted an intricate scheme for capturing the vital Hudson River valley (success would allow Britain to sever New England from the rest of the states and paralyze the American cause)Main invading force was under actor-playwright-soldier �Gentleman Johnny�
  9. After his repulse at Quebec in 1775 he had retreated slowly along the St. Lawrence River back to the Lake Champlain areaWas shot in the leg at QuebecTurned traitor in 1780
    General Bendict Arnold
  10. Ambitious, greedy, unscrupulous and feeling underappreciatedPlotted w/ the British to sell out the key stronghold of West Point which commanded the Hudson River, for 6300 Euros and an officer�s commissionPlot was discovered in the nick of time by accident
    Arnold's Treason, 1780
  11. British devised a plan to roll up the colonists starting in the S, where the Loyalists were numerousColony of George ruthlessly overrun 1778-79Charleston, S Carolina fell in 1780 � surrender of the city involved the capture of 5000 men, 400 cannon
    British War Strategy
  12. ScotsmanLed a naval establishment consisting of only a handful of nondescript ships commanded by officers one of which was himChief contribution was in destroying British merchant shipping and thus carrying the war into the waters around the British isles
    Admiral John Paul Jones
  13. British general Cornwallis had fallen back to Chesapeake Bay at Yorktown after futile operations in Virginia (Was awaiting seaborne supplies and reinforcements)Admiral de Grasse operating w/ a powerful fleet in the W Indies, advised the Americans he was free to join w/ them in an assault on Cornwallis at YorktownWashington seized the opportunity, made a swift march of 300+ miles to Chesapeake from New YorkBeset the British by land while de Grasse blockaded them by seaCornwallis was completely corneredSurrendered his entire force of 7000 men, October 19, 1781
    Yorktown, 1781
  14. A French admiral operating w/ a powerful fleet in the West IndiesGave the French the chance to cooperate w/ the Americans in a brilliant strokeAdvised the Americans he could join them in assaulting Cornwallis at YorktownHelped Washington by blockading the British by sea
    Admiral De Grasse
  15. After Yorktown many Britons were weary of war and increasingly ready to come to termsGeorge III still eager to continue to fightBritain suffered heavy reverses in Indian and W IndiesA Whig ministry rather favorable to the Americans replaced the Tory regime of Lord North3 American peace negotiators gathered at Paris: Ben Franklin, John Adams, John Jay (had explicit instructions from Congress to make no separate peace and to consult w/ French allies at all stages of the negotiations � American representatives chafed under this directive)John Jay = suspicious of Old World intrigue; unwilling to play France�s game, saw they would betray America�s interests to satisfy those of Spain�s; secretly made separate overtures to LondonBritish formally recognized the independence f the United StatesGranted generous boundaries, stretching from the Mississippi to the Great Lakes to Spanish FloridaLoyalists were not to be further persecutedCongress was to recommend to the state legislatures that confiscated Loyalist property be restoredStates vowed to put no lawful obstacles in the way of British creditors collecting debts long owed
    Treaty of Paris, 1783
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Second Continental Congress.txt