Bone Marrow Lab

  1. What is the granulocytic series?
    • myeloblast
    • promyelocyte
    • myelocyte
    • band
    • mature granulocyte
  2. Image Upload 1
    What is this?
    myelocyte - small cell, nucleus is round to oval, nucleus often eccentric, 1:1 ratio nucleus:cytoplasm
  3. Image Upload 2
    What are the three arrows pointing to?
    • adipose cell
    • myelocyte (has no nucleolus)
    • smearing
  4. Image Upload 3
    What are these arrows pointing to?
    • from the top, clockwise around...
    • myeloblast (nucelolus present), rubricyte, band, metamyelocyte, rubriblast (nucleolus present)
  5. Describe granulocytic cells.
    • lighter color cytoplasm than reds
    • round nucleus only in blast and progranulocyte stage, then the nucleus indents in the more mature stages
  6. Image Upload 4
    What is this cell?
    rubriblast - round cell with round nucleus, narrow rim of dark/bright blue cytoplasm, large cell, 1 - 2 nucleoli within nucleus
  7. Image Upload 5
    myeloblast - round/oval nucleus, 1 or more nucleoli, small to moderate amount of blue cytoplasm
  8. How does peripheral blood get mixed into a bone marrow sample?
    • too much back pressure on the syringe or continuing sample collection after the needle hub shows the presence of marrow
    • contamination also occurs when a blood filled sinus is encountered while placing the bone marrow needle.
  9. Image Upload 6
    • esoinophilic myelocyte
    • eosinophil
    • prorubricyte
    • rubricyte
    • band
    • metarubricyte
    • metamyelocyte
    • myelocyte
    • metarubricyte
  10. Which stage in the myeloid series does mitosis stop?
  11. Image Upload 7
    What is this cell?
    • Metamyelocyte
    • nucleus indents, chromatin more condensed, may see granules in cytoplasm, mature into bands
  12. Image Upload 8
    • promyelocyte/progranulocyte
    • no nucleolus, perinuclear clear zone, pinkish cytoplasmic granules
  13. Describe a rubricyte.
    • smaller cell
    • round nucleus
    • coarsely granular chromatin: more condensed
    • several types seen - cytoplasm bright to pale blue
  14. Image Upload 9
    • prorubricyte
    • similar to rubriblast (except no nucleolus present), lacey (vesicular) chromatin
    • perinuclear clear zone
  15. Image Upload 10
    What is this?
    • osteoclast
    • large cell
    • distinct individual multiple nuclei
    • confused with neoplasia or megakaryocytes
    • breaks down bone
  16. Image Upload 11
    What is this?
    • osteoblast
    • rarely seen in adults, oval/eccentric nucleus with perinuclear clear zone, large amount of cytoplasm, often see nucleoli
  17. What is a nucleolus?
    • a small round-oval structure within the nucleus of cells.
    • contain RNA and protein 
    • seen in immature cells
    • stains lighter than the surrounding nucleus
  18. What is chromatin clumping?
    • appears with int he nucleus 
    • deeply basophilic and sometime nearly black staining
    • perimeter is not smooth
  19. Cellularity is _____ dependant.
  20. What are the normal values of cellularity?
    • young animals 75% cells with 25% fat cells
    • mature animals 50% bone marrow cells with 50% fat cells
    • geriatric animals 25% cells with 75% fat
  21. What are fat cells called?
  22. How do you perform a bone marrow differential?
    • Scan slide on 10x and 40x for large cells and to find the monolayer
    • move to oil once you find the monolayer
    • count 500 precursor cells including metarubricytes and bands
    • include megakaryoctes, plasma cells, osteoclasts, and osteoblasts in your count
    • after 500 cell are counted record the total for each series
    • calculate the relative differential count and record
    • include "other" cells as well as myeloid and erythroid in this differential
    • example:  500 total cells counted...20 rubriblasts counted...20/500=0.04...0.04 x 100 = 4%
  23. If you are unsure how to classify a cell, always go with the more _____ cell.
  24. When making decisions about individual cells closely observe the following criteria:
    • size of cell in comparison to a mature cell
    • amount and color of cytoplasm
    • not if granules or clear areas are present in the cytoplasm
    • size and shape of nucleus
    • nuclear detail, including presence of nucleoli and chromatin patterns
    • note presence or absence of a perinuclear clear zone
  25. Image Upload 12
    Where is this bone marrow being taken?
    iliac crest
  26. Image Upload 13
    Where is this bone marrow being taken?
    trochanteric fossa
  27. Image Upload 14
    What is wrong in this field?
    granulocytic hyperplasia
  28. What is myeloproliferative disorders?
    • cell production out of control
    • immature cells > mature cells
    • a type of neoplaisa
    • named by cell type involved (may not be able to identify)
  29. What is a Jamshidi needle used for?
    • to obtain bone marrow core sample
    • used for histology
  30. Image Upload 15
    What are these?
    • lymphoblasts
    • large lymphs with nucleolus
  31. What is a rosenthal needle used for?
    • to obtain bone marrow aspirate samples
    • used for cytology
  32. Name the thrombocyte series.
    • megakaryoblast
    • promegakaryocyte
    • megakaryocyte
  33. What causes contamination of bone marrow sample with peripheral blood?
    • too much back pressure on the syringe or continuing sample collection after the needle hub shows the presence of marrow
    • can also occur when a blood filled sinus is encountered while placing the bone marrow needle
  34. What is nuclear streaming?
    • long, basophilic streaks seen on bone marrow and cytology slides are often due to the destruction of nuclei during preparation
    • neoplastic cells often have increased fragility and the nuclei may rupture more easily
  35. Image Upload 16
    What is this?
    • rubricyte
    • smaller cell
    • round nucleus
    • coarsely granular chromatin - more condensed
    • cytoplasm bright to pale blue
  36. Image Upload 17
    What is this?
    • plasma cell
    • end-stage of B-lymph development
    • produce antibodies
    • round cell
    • round eccentric nucleus
    • clumpy chromatin
    • perinuclear clear zone
  37. What is the perinuclear clear zone?
    golgi apparatus near nuclear - doesn't take up stain
  38. What is normal cellularity for a mature animal?
    50% cells, 50% fat
  39. What are the 2 types of bone marrow sampling?
    • core biopsy
    • bone marrow aspirate
  40. What is aplasia?
    • no RBCs or WBCs
    • lack of cell production
    • hard to find 500 WBCs + RBCs despite good sample
    • best diagnosed on histopathology
  41. What can cause aplasia?
    immunosuppressive drugs and viruses
  42. What is hemosiderin?  What does increased hemosiderin in the bone marrow mean?
    • a golden brown-black, granular deposit that is an insoluble form of iron
    • increased hemosiderin in the bone marrow may be the result of intravascular hemolysis
  43. Image Upload 18
    What is this?
    • mast cell
    • very low numbers in healthy animals
    • round cell
    • centrally placed nucleus
    • small purple granules fill cytoplasm - may obstruct nucleus
  44. Image Upload 19
    What are these?  What is wrong?
    • mast cells
    • mast cell tumor
    • increase in mast cells
    • purple cytoplasmic granules may obscure the nucleus
  45. Image Upload 20
  46. Image Upload 21
    What is this?
    • metarubricyte
    • dark nucleus
    • smaller cell - almost the size of a mature RBC
  47. Image Upload 22
    What is this?
    eosinophilic myelocyte
  48. Image Upload 23
    What is this?
    eosinophilic metamyelocyte
  49. Describe a rubriblast.
    • large cell
    • narrow rim of intensely basophilic cytoplasm
    • round nucleus with fine granular chromatin
    • 1 - 2 nucleoli
  50. Describe a prorubricyte.
    • similar to a rubriblast except...
    • nucleoli are no longer visible
    • chromatin is coarser/looks lacey
    • perinuclear clear zone may be present
  51. Describe a rubricyte.
    • smaller cell with coarse chromatin and more condensed
    • round nucleus
    • cytoplasm varies from basophilic to reddish-blue depending on amount of hemoglobin
  52. Describe metarubricyte.
    • even smaller cell
    • nucleus has become pyknotic (dark, condensed, small) without any light spaces
    • nucleus may be eccentric
    • cytoplasm is like a polychromatophil
  53. Describe myeloblast.
    • large, round to irregularly shaped cell
    • finely stippled nuclear chromatin/lacey
    • one or more prominent nucleoli
    • cytoplasm is blue-gray and no granules are present
  54. Describe progranulocyte (aka promyelocyte).
    • large, round to irregularly shaped cell
    • more cytoplasm than myeloblast
    • nucleus round to oval
    • cytoplasm - light blue-gray with scattered, small red/purple granules (primary granules)
    • nucleoli are absent or indistinct
    • chromatin becoming coarse
  55. Describe myelocyte.
    • smaller than progranulocyte
    • nucleus is usually round, may be beginning to indent
    • chromatin beginning to clump
    • non specific (azurophlic granules) no longer visible
    • definitive (larger) cytoplasmic granules may be visible depending on type of myelocyte
    • cytoplasm less basophilic
  56. Describe metamyelocyte.
    • similar to myelocyte except...
    • cytoplasm clear to slightly granular (except eos and baso)
    • nucleus indents to become kidney bean shaped, mitosis no longer occurs
    • chromatin coarse with clumps
  57. Describe megakaryoblast.
    • large cell
    • single nucleus
    • deep basophilic cytoplasm
  58. Describe promegakaryocyte.
    • large cell
    • contains 2 - 4 separate or fused nuclei
    • basophilic cytoplasm
  59. Describe megakaryocyte.
    • gigantic cell
    • multiple nuclei joined in a lobed mass
    • cytoplasm may be basophilic or violet
    • aciophilic cytoplasmic granules may be present
  60. Describe a plasma cell.
    • round, eccentric nucleus with coarse chromatin 
    • pale perinuclear clear zone may be present
    • large amount of basophilic cytoplasm
    • rarely contain round cytoplasmic structures (russell bodies) - if russell bodies are present it is called a Mott cell
  61. Describe osteoblast.
    • large cell
    • may resemble plasma cells except larger and less condensed chromatin
    • eccentric round to oval nucleus
    • nucleoli may be present
    • foamy basophilic cytoplasm
    • perinuclear clear zone may be present
  62. Describe osteoclast.
    • giant cell
    • multinucleated, nuclei are distinctly separate
    • blue cytoplasm
    • cytoplasmic granules
  63. What are the things we need to describe when describing a bone marrow cell?
    • cell:  size, shape, N:C (use numbers for ratios)
    • nucleus:  shape, chromatin pattern (vesicular, lacey, etc), inclusions (nucleolus)
    • cytoplasm:  color, perinuclear clear zone
Card Set
Bone Marrow Lab
Midterm Practical Lab Tech ll