Chem Ch 15

  1. Bronsted Acid
    proton donor
  2. Bronstead base
    proton acceptor
  3. conjugate base
    the species that remains after the acid has donated its proton
  4. conjugate acid
    the species formed when a base accepts a proton
  5. amphoteric
    can be an acid or a base (example: water)
  6. ion constant of water
    Kw = [H+] [OH-] = 1.0 x10 -14 at 25deg C
  7. pH & pOH equations
    • pH = - log [H30+] or [H+]
    • pOH = - log [OH]
    • pH + pOH = 14
  8. strong acids
    • HCl, HBr, HI, HNO3, HClO4, H2SO4
    • the congugate base has no measureable stregnth
  9. strong bases
    • bases that ionize completely in water
    • soluble hydroxides fit this description
    • LiOH, NaOH, KOH, Ba(OH)2, & Ca(OH)2
  10. percent ionization
    • ionized acid concentration at equilibrium / initial concentration of acid x 100%
    • [H3O+] / [HA]initial x 100%
  11. salts that produce basic solutions
    • a weak acid and a STRONG base
    • cation is neutral - alkali metal or alkaline earth metal
    • anion is the conjugate base of a weak acid (HCOONa)
  12. salts that produce neutral solutions
    • strong acid and a strong base
    • cation is alkali metal or alkaline earth metal - can neither accept or donate a proton (Na+)
    • anion is the conjugate base of a strong acid - has no measureable strength (only 5 choices)
  13. salts that produce acidic solutions
    • strong acid and a weak base
    • anion is neutral (the conjugate base of a strong acid)
    • cation is acidic - conjugate acid of a weak base (NH4+)
    • OR cation is a small highly charged metal (Al3+, Cr3+, Fe3+, Bi3+, Be2+) indirectly through water molecule
  14. the relationship between Ka and Kb
    Ka x Kb = Kw
  15. salt
    • an ionic compound formed by the reaction between an acid and a base
    • strong electrolytes - they completely dissociate when dissolved in water
  16. salt hydrolysis
    the reaction of the anion and/or cation of a salt with water
  17. Lewis acid
    electron pair acceptor
  18. Lewis base
    electron pair donor
  19. Lewis acid-base reaction
    • does not produce a salt and water, it produces a new bond
    • everything in bronsted would fit here, but reverse isn't true
    • oxidation-reduction reactions (redox)
  20. Ka
    [H30+] [CH3COO-] / [CH3COOH]
  21. Kb
    [CH3COOH] [OH-] / [CH3COO-]
  22. hydrohalic acids
    • acids of the halogens
    • weakest to strongest goes down periodic table: HF, HCl, HBr, HI
  23. oxoacids
    • acids that have oxygen in them
    • 1. different central atoms in the same group and same oxidation # increases bottom to top (HClO3 is stronger than (HBrO3)
    • 2. same central atom, but different # of attached groups (HClO4>HClO3>HClO2>HClO) increases with more attached
  24. carboxylic acids
Card Set
Chem Ch 15