Music 1030

  1. Define sound.
    Vibrations that are transmitted, usually through air, to the eardrum, which sends impulses to the brain.
  2. Define tone.
    Sound that has a definite pitch, or frequency.
  3. Define pitch.
    Relative highness or lowness of a sound.
  4. Define tone color or timbre.
    Quality of sound that distinguishes one intrument or voice from another.
  5. Define pitch range.
    Distance between the highest and lowest tones that a given voice or instrument can produce.
  6. Define solefege.
    The application of the sol-fa syllables to a musical scale or to a melody.
  7. Define interval.
    Distance in pitch between any two notes.
  8. Define octave.
    Interval between two tones in which the higher tone has twice the frequency of the lower tone.
  9. Define dynamics.
    Degrees of loudness or softness in music.
  10. Define pianissmo (pp).
    Very soft.
  11. Define piano (p).
  12. Define mezzo piano (mp).
    Moderately soft.
  13. Define mezzo forte (mf).
    Moderately loud.
  14. Define forte (f).
  15. Define fortissmo (ff).
    Very loud.
  16. Define decrescendo.
    Gradually softer.
  17. Define diminuendo.
    Gradually softer.
  18. Define crescendo.
    Gradually louder.
  19. Define soprano.
    Highest female voice.
  20. Define alto (or contralto).
    Lowest female voice.
  21. Define tenor.
    Highest male voice.
  22. Define bass.
    Lowest male voice.
  23. What are the six classification categories?
    • 1. String.
    • 2. Woodwind.
    • 3. Brass.
    • 4. Percussion.
    • 5. Keyboard.
    • 6. Electronic.
  24. In a typical seating plan for a large orchestra, what is the distribution of the instruments?
    • From front to back:
    • 1. String.
    • 2. Woodwind.
    • 3. Brass.
    • 4. Percussion.
  25. Which instrument is the soprano of the string family?
  26. Which instrument is the alto of the string family?
  27. Which instrument is the tenor of the string family?
  28. Which instrument is the bass of the string family?
    Double bass.
  29. Define pizzicato.
    Plucked string.
  30. Define double stop.
    Two notes at once. (String intruments).
  31. Define triple stop.
    Three notes at once. (String instruments).
  32. Define quadruple stop.
    Four notes at once. (String instruments).
  33. Define vibrato.
    Throbbing, expressive tone by rocking left hand while pressing the string down.
  34. Define mute.
    Veil or muffle, fitting a clamp onto the bridge.
  35. Define tremolo.
    Rapidly repeating tones by quick up-and-down strokes of the bow.
  36. Define harmonics.
    Very high-pitched tones. High squeaky tones.
  37. What are the three classifications of the woodwind family?
    • 1. Open hole.
    • 2. Single reed.
    • 3. Double reed.
  38. What instruments are open-hole in the woodwind family?
    • Piccolo.
    • Flute.
  39. What instruments are single-reed in the woodwind family?
    • Clarinet.
    • Bass clarinet.
  40. What instruments are double-reed in the woodwind family?
    • Oboe.
    • English horn.
    • Bassoon.
    • Contrabassoon.
  41. Define reed.
    A very thin piece of cane, used in woodwind instruments to produce sound as it is set inot vibration by a stream of air.
  42. Define single-reed instruments.
    Instruments whose sound is produced by a single piece of cane, or reed, fastened over a hole in the mouthpiece. The reed vibrates when the player blows into the mouthpiece.
  43. Define double-reed woodwinds.
    Instruments whose sound is produced by two narrow pieces of cane held between the player's lips; these pieces vibrate when the player blows between them.
  44. What family does the saxophone belong to?
    Woodwind family.
  45. What are the four commonalities of the brass family?
    • 1. All made of brass.
    • 2. All have cup or funnel shaped mouthpiece.
    • 3. All work on overtone series (7 harmonic series.
    • 4. All use valves; except trombone.
  46. How many mutes are there for the brass family?
    Four. All have different timbre.
  47. What are the instruments of the brass family?
    • S- Trumpet.
    • A - French horn.
    • T - Trombone.
    • B - Tuba.
  48. What are the two categories of percussion instruments?
    • 1. Definite pitch.
    • 2. Indefinite pitch.
  49. Define definite pitch.
    Percussion instruments that produce a tone.
  50. Define indefinite pitch.
    Percussion instruments that produce a noiselike sound.
  51. What are the instruments of the percussion family that have definite pitch?
    • Timpani (kettledrums).
    • Glockenspiel.
    • Xylophone.
    • Celesta.
    • Chimes.
  52. What are the instruments of the percussion family that have indefinite pitch?
    • Snare drum (side rum).
    • Bass drum.
    • tambourine.
    • Triangle.
    • Cymbals.
    • Gong (tam-tam)
  53. What are the instruments of the keyboard family?
    • Piano.
    • Harpsichord.
    • Pipe Organ.
  54. Define rhythm.
    Ordered flow of music through time; the pattern of durations of notes and silences in music.
  55. Define beat.
    Regular, recurrent pulsation that divides music into equal units of time.
  56. Define meter.
    Organization of beats into regular groups.
  57. Define measure.
    Rhythmic group set off by bar lines, containing a fixed number of beats.
  58. Define accent.
    Emphasis of a note, which may result from its being louder, longer, or higher in pitch than the notes near it.
  59. Define syncopation.
    Accenting of a note at an unexpected time, as between two beats or on a weak beat. Syncopation is a major characteristic of jazz.
  60. Define upbeat.
    Unaccented pulse preceding the downbeat.
  61. Define downbeat.
    First, or stressed, beat of a measure.
  62. Define offbeat.
    A note at unexpected time; also known as syncopation.
  63. Define theme.
    Melody that serves as the starting point for an extended piece of music.
  64. Define variation.
    Changing some features of a musical idea while retaining others.
  65. Define tempo.
    The speed of the beat; the basic pace of the music.
  66. Define largo.
    very slow, broad.
  67. Define grave.
    Very slow, solemn.
  68. Define adagio.
  69. Define andante.
    Moderately slow, a walking pace.
  70. Define moderato.
  71. Define allegretto.
    Moderately fast.
  72. Define allegro.
  73. Define vivace.
  74. Define presto.
    Very fast.
  75. Define prestissimo.
    As fast as possible.
  76. Define treble clef.
    • (G clef)
    • Used for relatively high ranges.
  77. Define bass clef.
    • (F clef)
    • Used for relatively low ranges.
  78. Define sharp sign (#).
    Raises note 1/2 step.
  79. Define natural sign (L7).
    Cancels sharp or flat sign.
  80. Define Middle C.
    Note that the C nearest to the middle of the keyboard.
  81. Define grand staff.
    A combination of the treble and bass staves.
  82. Define enharmonic.
    A note that sounds the same, spelled differently.
  83. Define dotted note.
    Increases duration by half.
  84. Define tie.
    Way to lengthen the duration of a note.
  85. Define triplet.
    Three notes of equal duration notated as a group within a curved line and the number 3.
  86. Define rest.
    Duration of silence.
  87. Define time signature (meter signature).
    Shows the meter of a piece. The upper numbers tells how many beats fall in a measure. The lower number tells what kind of note gets the beat.

    • 2
    • 4 ¬†2 beats to the measure, a quarter note gets 1 beat.
  88. Define melody.
    The part which we remember. Is a series of single tones that add up to a recognizable whole.
  89. Define melodic curve (melodic line).
    The up-and-down  movement of melody's pitches conveys tension and release, expectation and arrival.
  90. Define climax.
    Emotional focal point. The highest tone of a melody.
  91. Define legato.
    Tones of a melody performed in a smooth, connected style.
  92. Define staccato.
    Tones of a melody performed in a short, detached manner.
  93. Define steps.
    Melody moves by small intervals.
  94. Define leaps.
    Melody moves by larger intervals.
  95. Define phrases.
    Short units may have similar pitch and rhythm patterns that help unify the melody. (8 measures).
  96. Define cadence.
    A resting place at the end of a phrase; a point of arrival.
  97. Define incomplete cadence.
    Partial, setting up expectations.
  98. Define complete cadence.
    Gives a sense of finality.
  99. Define harmony.
    Chords used to support; refers to the way chords are constructed and how they follow each other.
  100. Define chord.
    Comes in a progression. Is a combination fo three or more tones sounded at once.
  101. Define tonic chord.
    1st chord. A triad built on the 1st, or tonic note of the scale; it is the main chord of a piece, the most stable and conclusive.
  102. Define dominant chord.
    5th note or chord, brings you back to 1. The triad built on the 5th note of the scale; strongly pulled toward the tonic chord.
  103. Define triad.
    the simplest, most basic chord, which consists of three tones.
  104. Define cononance.
    A tone combination taht is stable; pleasing to the ear.
  105. Define dissonance.
    A tone combination that is unstable; has to be rosolved.
  106. Define resolution.
    When dissonance moves to consonance.
  107. Define arpeggio (broken chord).
    When the individual tones of a chord are sounded one after another.
  108. Define key (keynote, central note, tonic, tonality).
    The central tone; involves not only a central tone but also a central scale and chord; A keynote can be any of the 12 tones of the octave.

    When a piece is in the key of C, for example, C is the keynote.
  109. Define key signature.
    Used to indicate the key of a piece of music, consisting of sharp or flat signs immediately following the clef sign at the beginning of the staff.
  110. Define chromatic scale.
    The twelve tones of the octave; tones are all one half step apart.
  111. Define musical texture.
    Refers to how many different layers of sound are heard at once.
  112. Define monophonic (unison).
    The texture of a single melodic line without accompaniment; having one sound.
  113. Define polyphonic.
    The texture that has simultaneous performance of two or more melodic lines of relatively equal interest; having many sounds.
  114. Define counterpoint.
    Technique of combining several melodic lines into a meaningful whole.
  115. Define imitation (cannon).
    Occurs when a melodic idea is presented by one voice or instrument and is then restated immediately by another.
  116. Define homophonic.
    • Accompaniments vary widely in character and importance.
    • Between homophonic and polyphonic.
    • When we hear one main melody accompanied by chords.
  117. Define musical form.
    Organization of musical elements in time.
  118. Define binary form.
    2 part form; A B; composition made up in two sections.
  119. Define ternary form.
    Three part form; statement (A), contrast or departure (B), return (A).
  120. Define repetition.
    Technique that creates a sense of unity; appeals to the pleasure we get in recognizing and remembering something.
  121. Define contrast.
    Technique that provide vareity; forward motion, conflict, and change of mood; propels and develops musical ideas.
  122. Define variation.
    In keeping some elements of a musical thought while changing other; some of its features will be retained while others are changed.
Card Set
Music 1030
music appreciation