Psychology Final

  1. Distinguishing features of social-cognitive theory(5)
    • 1. emphasis on people as active agents involved in their own development.
    • 2. emphasis on social origins of behavior
    • 3. emphasis on cognitive processes
    • 4. Emphasis on both average behavioral tendencies and variability in behavior
    • 5. emphasis on the learning of complex patterns of behavior in the absence of rewards
  2. Three psychological qualities are essential features of persons:
    • 1. persons are beings who can reason about the world using language
    • 2. persons can reason about not only present circumstances but events in their past and hypothetical events in future
    • 3. this reasoning involves reflection on the self-the one who is doing the reasoning
  3. Four structural concepts within social-cognitive theory
    • 1. compentencies and skills
    • 2. expectancies and beliefs
    • 3. behavorial standards
    • 4. personal goals
  4. 2 important theorectical principles within the social-cognitive theory
    • 1. reciprocal determinism
    • 2. cognitive-affective processing system (CAPS)
  5. What is Reciprocal Determinism and the 3 factors
    • -analyzing human behavior one must recognize that three separate factors influence one another.
    • 1. behavior
    • 2. personality characteristics
    • 3. the environment
  6. What is CAPS?
    • - a model that views personality as a system with three essential factors
    • 1. cognitive and emotional personality variables are complexly linked to one another
    • 2. different aspects of social situations activate subsets of the overall personality system
    • 3. people behavior should vary from one situation to another
  7. Two main psychological activities or functions that people engage in related to growth and development?
    • 1. Acquiring new knowledge and skills
    • 2. experting control over one's own actions and emotional experiences
  8. Observational Learning
    • - people can learn by observing the behavior of others.
    • - the person being observed is called the model also known as modeling
  9. Acquisition vs. Performance
    Vicarious Conditioning
    - a new, complex pattern of behavior can be learned regardless of reinforcers but whether or not the behavior is performed will depend on rewards and punishments

    - not only can behavior be learned through observations but emotional reactions can also be conditioned on a various conditioning
  10. How does growth and development occur?
    • - involves changes in the cognitive mechanisms associated with self-regulation.
    • - self- regulation= self directed motivation of behavior.
    • - personal expectations, personal goals are at the heart of human modivation
    • - the anticipation of satisfaction with desired accomplishments and the dissatisfaction with insufficent accomplishments that provide the reasons for our effort.
  11. What are self-schemas?
    • - structures of the mind that we use to make sense of the world around us
    • - many of our most imp schemas concern ourselves
    • - self is a concept or category like any other and people form cognitive generalizations about themselves just as they do about other things.
  12. 2 biases in the way we process info about ourselves
    • 1. self-enhancement- we are motivated to maintain a positive self-image
    • 2. self-varification- we are motivated to experience ourselves as being consistent and predictable
  13. What causes anxiety and depression?
    • Anxiety results from perceptions of low self-efficacy in relation to potential threats
    • - depression results from percieved inability to gain desired rewarding outcomes.
  14. Assumptions of Cognitive Theory (6)
    • 1. cognitions are critical in determining feelings and behaviors
    • 2. cognitions of interest tend to be specific to situations or categories of situations
    • 3. psychopathology arises from maladaptive cognitions concerning the self, others, ane events in the world.
    • 4. Faulty, maladaptive cognitions lead to problematic feelings and behaviors and these lead to further faulty problematic cognitions
    • 5. cognitve theory involves a collabortive effort between therapist and patient to determine which distorted maladaptive cognitions are creating difficulty, and replace with other adaptive cognitions
    • 6. unconscious is only imp so far as patients may not be aware of their routine and ways of thinking about themselves and life.
  15. what are the effects of self-efficacy on health?
    • - strong, positive self-efficacy beliefs are good
    • - negative self-efficacy beliefs are bad
  16. Behavioral competencies are learned in treatment through what activities?
    • - modeling
    • -guided mastery
  17. what is necessay to effect therapeutic change?
    • 1. acquring new patterns of thought and behavior
    • 2. generalizing and maintaining those patterns
  18. Therapeutic Effects of Modeling
    • 1. Development of new skills
    • 2. changes in inhibitions about self-expression
    • 3. facilitation of preexicsting patterns of behavior
    • 4. adoption of more realistic standards for judging one's own performance
  19. 3 things stress inoculation involves
    • 1. teaching clients the cognitive nature of stress
    • 2. instruction in procedures to cope with stress and change faulty cognitions
    • 3. training in the application of these procedures in actual situations
  20. Albert Ellis's Rational-Emotive Therapy
    • - An activating (A) event may lead to a consequence (C) such as emotional reaction.
    • - we create beliefs (B) between A&C. Our B's about A largely determine our response to it.
  21. Aaron Beck's Cognitive Therapy
    • -best known for relevance to treatment of depression
    • -believed that psychological difficulties are due to:
    • 1. automatic thoughts
    • 2. dysfunctional assumptions
    • 3. negative self-statements
    • -depressed person misevaluates ongoing and past experiences
  22. ABC of rational emotive therapy
    • - an activating of (A) event may lead to a consequence (C) such as emotional reaction
    • - we create beliefs (B) between A&C. Our B's about A largely determine our response to it.
  23. Beck's Cognitive Theory
    • -approach is best known to treatment of depression
    • - psychological difficulties are due to:
    • -automatic thoughts
    • - dysfuntional assumptions
    • - negative self-statements
  24. Cognitive Triad of Depression
    • 1. Negative views of the self
    • 2. Negative views of the world
    • 3. Negative views of the future
  25. Critical Evalutation
    • 1. Scientific Observation-Yes
    • 2. Systematic-NO
    • 3. Testable-Yes
    • 4. Comprehensive-Yes
    • 5. Applicable-Yes
Card Set
Psychology Final
notes for final