A complex and dynamic system of conventional symbols used as various modes for thought and communication.
What are the language descriptions or the components of language?
Content, form, and use
What are the language domains and to what category do they belong?
- Semantics- content
- Phonology- form
- Morphology- form
- Syntax- form
- Pragmatics- use
Sound systems of the language; smallest unit of language that overlays the meaning to motoric movements of speech
Smallest unit of language that expresses meaning
Sentence level structure of language that marks relationships between rules and ideas
The meaning of the language; consists of two types of information lexical and conceptual
how we use language; intent; request; quality of expression; topic initiation, maintenance, shifting, closure; eye contact; body gestures, intonation
What are the stages of communication?
Perlocutionary, Illocutionary, and Locutionary.
It refers to the unintentional stage of communication; burping, vocalizations
Typical developing infant uses gestures and non linguistic gestures to communicate; known as a "metalinguistic" stage of communication
Prelocutionary and Illocutionary stages are known as what type of skills?
define "match"; name an rodent that rhymes with "hat"; "got up on the wrong side of the bed"; "as light as a feather"; "got milk?"; "what has flies and four wheels?"; Linguistic and Metalinguistic
Type of language that is life long learning
The ability to think and talk about language
Trained in assessment and intervention of disorders of speech (articulation, voice, fluency), language; also involved in accent reduction
Speech- Language Pathology
What is the process of becoming a Speech-Language Pathologist?
Graduate degree, CFY, Praxis, and ASHA Certification
What is the process of getting a referral to a Speech-Language Pathologist?
- 1) developmental history
- 2) hearing screening or hearing test
- 3) parent, teacher, pediatrician referral
- 4) assessment protocol
- 5) report
- 6) recommendations
Goal- end product of treatment; "the child will demonstrate age-appropriate communication skills for academic, social, and vocational success"
Long term goal
Goal- to be accomplished within weeks or months; "The child will demonstrate good understanding of age- appropriate synonyms with 90% accuracy with minimal assistance"
Short term goal
Goals set for a specific treatment session; "the child will provide 10 synonyms from Word Lish 1 with 85% accuracy with verbal cueing and modeling"
exact demonstration of what the clinican expects the child to do
Therapeutic Scaffolding: verbal model
clinician may run his hand along the child's arm to indicate that the child should produce the /z/ sound at the end of the word "cars"
Therapeutic Scaffolding: tactile cue
helps the child experience different sensations such as feeling, seeing, listening, watching
Therapeutic Scaffolding: feedback
Refers to the progressive and continuous growth of perception, memory, imagination, conception, judgment, and reason; involves the mental activities of comprehendng information and the processes of acquiring, organizing, remembering, and using knowledge; used for problem solving and generalization to novel situations.
Aspect of adaptation process- Child's attempt to incorporate new stimuli into existing schemas or structures
Aspect of adaptation process- Child is exposed a new stimulus that DOES NOT fit into existing schemes and must integrate the new information.
What are Piaget's stages of cognitive development?
A stage of Piaget's cogniitive development from birth to 2 years; reflexive and reacts to stimuli in the environment and motoric
A stage of Piaget's cogniitive development from 2-7 years; language and cognition closely linked; child is able to represent action through thought and language; Intellectual development at this stage is called _________; children in this stage are egocentric and pay attention to only part of a situation
Preoperational Stage; prelogical
A stage of Piaget's cogniitive development from 7- 11 years; abstract thought develops and rational judgments; as the child matures and enters advanced, logical thinking stages he develops what 3 things?
Concrete Operational stage ; reversibility, seriation, and classification
The ability to apply logical thought to concrete problems such as follow a line of reasoning back to where it began
The ability to mentally arrange elements in a series according to value, size, or any other criterion
The act of grouping objects according to their similarities
A stage of Piaget's cogniitive development from 11- 15 year; fully developed cognition and multiple points of view; the child develops an ability to solve both verbal and scientific problems; abstract thought and logical reasoning dominate the intellectual growth of the child at this final stage of development
Formal Operations stage
movement that involve large muscles (i.e., trunk muscles, leg muscles)
Gross Motor skills
smaller muscles used in the tongue or for writing
Fine Motor skills
The sensorimotor period was broken down into six specific categories due to the significant and rapid growth that occurs during this 2 year period. What are the six categories and what ages do they describe?
- 1. Reflexive- birth to 2 months
- 2. Primary Circulator Reactions- 2-4 months
- 3. Secondary Circulator Reactions- 4-8 months
- 4. Coordination or Reactions- 8-12 months
- 5. Tertiary Circular Reactions- 12-18 months
- 6. Early Representational Thought- 18-24 months
6 Gross Motor Milestones
1. Sitting without support
2. Standing with assistance
3. Hands-&-knees crawling
4. Walking with assistance
5. Standing alone
6. Walking alone
- 1. 4-9 months
- 2. 5-12 months
- 3. 5-14 months
- 4. 6-14 months
- 5. 7-17 months
- 6. 8-18 months
Self-regulation and interest in environment
Birth to 1 month
Selective attention to faces
Discriminates between faces
Development of mutual eye gaze
Imitates some sounds
Responds to name
Smiles and vocalizes in mirror
Can make basic wants and needs known to influence
Attachment formation with significant others
Has a "falling in love" look with others
Obeys some commands
Speaks one or more "words"
Imitates inflections, rhythms, facial expression
Expresses different emotions
Takes turns with others
Realizes he can have an effect on the environment
First true words and phrases
Tries to "tell" stories
Vocabulary growth spurt around 18 months
Begins two- word combinations
Engages in interactive play
internal wiring of the child for language development
environmental input the child receives to learn language
Types of language development theories and whether they belong to nature or nurture.
- Psycholinguistic Theory-Syntatic Model- Nature
- Psycholinguistic Theory-Semantic/Cognitive Model- Nature
- Behavioral Theory- Nurture
- Socialinguistic Theory- Nurture
- Emergentism- A compromise
Attempts to explain the influence of semantics on the syntactic structure of language; proposes that there is an underlying level of the deep structure consisting of universal semantic concepts that specify word relationships
Psycholinguistic theory: Semantic/Cognitive Model