Exam 1

  1. A complex and dynamic system of conventional symbols used as various modes for thought and communication. 
  2. What are the language descriptions or the components of language? 
    Content, form, and use
  3. What are the language domains and to what category do they belong? 
    • Semantics- content
    • Phonology- form
    • Morphology- form
    • Syntax- form
    • Pragmatics- use
  4. Sound systems of the language; smallest unit of language that overlays the meaning to motoric movements of speech
  5. Smallest unit of language that expresses meaning
  6. Sentence level structure of language that marks relationships between rules and ideas
  7. The meaning of the language; consists of two types of information lexical and conceptual 
  8. how we use language; intent; request; quality of expression; topic initiation, maintenance, shifting, closure; eye contact; body gestures, intonation 
  9. What are the stages of communication? 
    Perlocutionary, Illocutionary, and Locutionary. 
  10. It refers to the unintentional stage of communication; burping, vocalizations 
    Perlocutionary Stage 
  11. Typical developing infant uses gestures and non linguistic gestures to communicate; known as a "metalinguistic" stage of communication
    Illocutionary Stage 
  12. Prelocutionary and Illocutionary stages are known as what type of skills?
    Prelinguistic skills 
  13. define "match"; name an rodent that rhymes with "hat"; "got up on the wrong side of the bed"; "as light as a feather"; "got milk?"; "what has flies and four wheels?"; Linguistic and Metalinguistic
    Locutionary Stage 
  14. Type of language that is life long learning
    Linguistic language 
  15. The ability to think and talk about language 
  16. Trained in assessment and intervention of disorders of speech (articulation, voice, fluency), language; also involved in accent reduction
    Speech- Language Pathology
  17. What is the process of becoming a Speech-Language Pathologist?
    Graduate degree, CFY, Praxis, and ASHA Certification 
  18. What is the process of getting a referral to a Speech-Language Pathologist?
    • 1) developmental history 
    • 2) hearing screening or hearing test 
    • 3) parent, teacher, pediatrician referral 
    • 4) assessment protocol
    • 5) report
    • 6) recommendations
  19. Goal- end product of treatment; "the child will demonstrate age-appropriate communication skills for academic, social, and vocational success" 
    Long term goal 
  20. Goal- to be accomplished within weeks or months; "The child will demonstrate good understanding of age- appropriate synonyms with 90% accuracy with minimal assistance"
    Short term goal
  21. Goals set for a specific treatment session; "the child will provide 10 synonyms from Word Lish 1 with 85% accuracy with verbal cueing and modeling"
    Session Objectives 
  22. exact demonstration of what the clinican expects the child to do
    Therapeutic Scaffolding: verbal model
  23. clinician may run his hand along the child's arm to indicate that the child should produce the /z/ sound at the end of the word "cars"
    Therapeutic Scaffolding: tactile cue 
  24. helps the child experience different sensations such as feeling, seeing, listening, watching
    Therapeutic Scaffolding: feedback
  25. Refers to the progressive and continuous growth of perception, memory, imagination, conception, judgment, and reason; involves the mental activities of comprehendng information and the processes of acquiring, organizing, remembering, and using knowledge; used for problem solving and generalization to novel situations. 
    Cognitive Development
  26. Aspect of adaptation process- Child's attempt to incorporate new stimuli into existing schemas or structures 
  27. Aspect of adaptation process- Child is exposed a new stimulus that DOES NOT fit into existing schemes and must integrate the new information.
  28. What are Piaget's stages of cognitive development?
    • Sensorimotor
    • Preoperational
    • Concrete
    • Formal 
  29. A stage of Piaget's cogniitive development from birth to 2 years; reflexive and reacts to stimuli in the environment and motoric
    Sensorimotor stage
  30. A stage of Piaget's cogniitive development from 2-7 years; language and cognition closely linked; child is able to represent action through thought and language; Intellectual development at this stage is called _________; children in this stage are egocentric and pay attention to only part of a situation
    Preoperational Stage; prelogical
  31. A stage of Piaget's cogniitive development from 7- 11 years; abstract thought develops and rational judgments; as the child matures and enters advanced, logical thinking stages he develops what 3 things?
    Concrete Operational stage ; reversibility, seriation, and classification
  32. The ability to apply logical thought to concrete problems such as follow a line of reasoning back to where it began 
  33. The ability to mentally arrange elements in a series according to value, size, or any other criterion
  34. The act of grouping objects according to their similarities 
  35. A stage of Piaget's cogniitive development from 11- 15 year; fully developed cognition and multiple points of view; the child develops an ability to solve both verbal and scientific problems; abstract thought and logical reasoning dominate  the intellectual growth of the child at this final stage of development
    Formal Operations stage
  36. movement that involve large muscles (i.e., trunk muscles, leg muscles)
    Gross Motor skills 
  37. smaller muscles used in the tongue or for writing
    Fine Motor skills
  38. The sensorimotor period was broken down into six specific categories due to the significant and rapid growth that occurs during this 2 year period. What are the six categories and what ages do they describe?
    • 1. Reflexive- birth to 2 months
    • 2. Primary Circulator Reactions- 2-4 months
    • 3. Secondary Circulator Reactions- 4-8 months
    • 4. Coordination or Reactions- 8-12 months
    • 5. Tertiary Circular Reactions- 12-18 months
    • 6. Early Representational Thought- 18-24 months
  39. 6 Gross Motor Milestones 
    1. Sitting without support
    2. Standing with assistance
    3. Hands-&-knees crawling 
    4. Walking with assistance
    5. Standing alone
    6. Walking alone 
    • 1. 4-9 months
    • 2. 5-12 months
    • 3. 5-14 months
    • 4. 6-14 months
    • 5. 7-17 months
    • 6. 8-18 months
  40. Communication:
      Reflexive smile
    Self-regulation and interest in environment 
    Birth to 1 month 
  41. Communication:
     Selective attention to faces
     Discriminates between faces
     Social smile
     Development of mutual eye gaze
     Imitates some sounds
     Responds to name
     Smiles and vocalizes in mirror
     Can make basic wants and needs known to influence
    Social- Emotional:
     Attachment formation with significant others
     Has a "falling in love" look with others
    2-7 months
  42. Communication:
      Obeys some commands
      Speaks one or more "words"
      Imitates inflections, rhythms, facial expression
      Develops jargon
      Expresses different emotions
      Takes turns with others
      Realizes he can have an effect on the environment 
    7-12 months 
  43. Communication:
      First true words and phrases 
      Tries to "tell" stories 
      Vocabulary growth spurt around 18 months
      Begins two- word combinations
      Develops independence
      Engages in interactive play
    12-24 months
  44. internal wiring of the child for language development
  45. environmental input the child receives to learn language 
  46. Types of language development theories and whether they belong to nature or nurture. 
    • Psycholinguistic Theory-Syntatic Model- Nature
    • Psycholinguistic Theory-Semantic/Cognitive Model- Nature
    • Behavioral Theory- Nurture 
    • Socialinguistic Theory- Nurture
    • Emergentism- A compromise 
  47. Attempts to explain the influence of semantics on the syntactic structure of language; proposes that there is an underlying level of the deep structure consisting of universal semantic concepts that specify word relationships
    Psycholinguistic theory: Semantic/Cognitive Model
Card Set
Exam 1
Chapters 1, 2, and 3