Chapter 12 History

  1. Grand Canal
    A canal which was reconstructed between 1411 and 1415 allowed trade to happen within the Ming Dynasty, stretching from Hangzhou in the south to Beijing in the north
  2. Chinese Commodities
    • Silk from Suzhou (10% of Ming revenue), porcelain
    • bought by Ming rulers, silver (bought from outside of China), cotton
  3. Indian Ocean Trade/Melaka
    • Melaka was a central port in Indian Ocean trade
    • because everyone came there to trade so everything was available.  The Indian Ocean connected Africa/Asia/Middle
    • East which made trade easy and didn’t yet include Europeans.
  4. Who invented gunpowder?
    Chinese,but used by the Ottomans to conquer Constantinople, and by Christians in Granada
  5. Vasco de Gama
    The first portguese mariner to reach the Indian Ocean.  He explored east Africa for 4 months and then to southern india where he was briefly taken hostage. Rough voyage back to Portugal, but realized that trade via indian ocean was profitable 
  6. Encomienda
    a grant that the Spanish crown would give to conquistadors for control over Indian labor
  7. Aztecs
    • An empire that consisted of many smaller cities
    • united under one rule that was very powerful in the 15th century, but unequipped to handle invasion.
  8. Technochtitlan 
    Designed in concentric circles with main buildings in the middle and housing outward, Tenochtitlan is the capital of the Aztec empire.  Tenochtitlan is one big island.  Inter-marriage within cities was common which helped strengthen inter-city relations.
  9. Resistance to Aztecs by Tlaxcallans and
    • Aztecs used other people as human sacrifices to
    • a sun god, but the Tlaxcallans and Tarascans, starting in 1440 waged war against the Aztecs and were able to withstand entire divisions of Aztec armies.
  10. Dona Marina
    An Indian translator acquired by Cortes who became his lover and also divulged secrets about the Aztecs to Cortes so they could succeed 
  11. Columbian Exchange
    • exchange of food between the Spanish who brought
    • wheat, grapevines, and sugarcane and the Indians who brought potatoes, corn, tomatoes, beans, cacao, peanuts, tobacco, and squash. But it also brought disease to the native americans
  12. Potosi Mines
    A mine in modern day Bolivia where the Spanish conquistadors sent 25-35,000 tons of silver back to Spain annually
  13. Charles V
    Son of Isabella and Ferdinand and inherited the Kingdom of spain in 1519 but because of disunity in politics and religion he abdicated the thrown in 1556 and divided the kingdom up between his son and little brother
  14. Luther
    95 theses, reformation from within the church but was excommunicated and started the lutheran church
  15. Henry VIII
    Ruler of England who created a new “middle way” religion called Anglican 
  16. Calvin
    modified luther’s ideas to emphasis individual relationship with God, predestination
  17. Huguenots (St. Bartholomew’s Day Massacre), 
    Catholics in France stormed Paris and slaughtered 3,000 Huguenots (Protestants) there and another 10,000 in border cities 
  18. Akbar the Great
    The emperor during the Mughal empire’s great expansion
  19. Aurangzeb
    Akbar’s grandson, reigned during the time when the empire was nearly the size of all of India 
Card Set
Chapter 12 History
ch12 Mallampali Westmont