1. Gross anatomy (macroscopic anatomy)
    • Investigates structures visible to the unaided eye though:
    • ---Systemic anatomy
    • ---Regional anatomy
    • ---Surface anatomy
    • ---Comparative anatomy
    • ---embryology
  2. systemic anatomy
    subset of gross anatomy: studies the anatomy of each functional body system
  3. regional anatomy
    subset of gross anatomy: examines all of the structures in a particular region of the body
  4. surface anatomy
    subset of gross anatomy: focuses on superficial anatomic markings and internal body structures
  5. comparative anatomy
    subset of gross anatomy: examines similarities and differences in anatomy of different species
  6. embryology
    subset of gross anatomy: studies developmental changes from conception to birth
  7. Cardiovascular physiology
    the functioning of the heart, blood vessels, and blood
  8. Neurophysiology
    the functioning of nerves and nervous system organs
  9. Respiratory physiology
    the functioning of respiratory organs
  10. What is the relationship between anatomy and physiology?
    Anatomy studies structure and form; physiology studies the function of body parts. Their study is intertwined.
  11. Chemical level
    • Involves atoms and molecules
    • Macromolecules
    • Organelles
  12. Cellular level
    • Consists of cells, the smallest living structures
    • -----Formed from atoms and molecules from the chemical level
  13. Tissue level
    • Consists of tissues, groups of similar cells performing common functions
    • Four types of tissues:
    • -----epithelial tissue
    • -----connective tissue
    • -----muscle tissue
    • -----nervous tissue
  14. epithelial tissue
    covers exposed surfaces and lines body cavities
  15. connective tissue
    protects, supports, and binds structures and organs
  16. muscle tissue
    produces movement
  17. nervous tissue
    conducts nerve impulses
  18. Organ level
    • Consists of organs, two or more tissue types performing specific functions
    • -----e.g., the small intestine composed of all four tissue types, working to process and absorb digested nutrients
  19. Organ system level
    • Contains related organs that work together to achieve a common function
    • -----e.g., organs of the digestive system working together to digest food, absorb nutrients, and expel waste products
  20. Organismal level
    • Highest level of structural organization
    • All body functions working interdependently in an organism, the living being
  21. Homeostatic imbalancement (8)
    • Hypertension
    • Congestive Heart Failure
    • Grave‚Äôs Disease
    • Diabetes
    • Ventricular Hypertrophy
    • Polycystic Ovarian Disease
    • Gigantism
    • Dehydration
  22. Structures needed for feedback loop
    • Receptor
    • Integrator
    • Effector
  23. Receptor : structure that senses change
    -----ex: stretch receptors in heart and large blood vessels send information of an elevated or decreased BP to integrator
  24. Integrator: control center
    cardiac center in brainstem signals heart to increase or decrease
  25. Effector : structures that carry out commands of the control center
    Heart rate increases (tachycardia) and BP increases
  26. Negative feedback
    • A type of homeostatic control system that maintains the variable within a normal range
    • If stimulus decreases, homeostatic control system activated to cause an increase in the stimulus
    • Ex: body temp
  27. Positive feedback
    • Moves the stimulus in the same direction
    • Ex: breast feeding
  28. Self-amplifying cycle
    • a physiological change leads to an even greater change in the same direction
    • ex: blood clotting
  29. Prone position
    On stomach
  30. Supine position
    On back
  31. Anatomical position
    the Standard frame of reference for anatomical descriptions and dissection
  32. Sagittal plane
    divides body into right and left halves
  33. Frontal (coronal) plane
    divides body into front & back portions
  34. Transverse plane
    divides the body into upper & lower portions
  35. Membranes (4)
    • Cutaneous Membrane
    • Synovial Membrane
    • Mucous Membrane
    • Serous Membrane
  36. Cutaneous Membrane
    keratinized stratified epithelial tissue (skin)
  37. Synovial Membrane
    membrane around joints composed of synoviocytes; secrete synovial fluid
  38. Mucous Membrane
    lines body cavity that opens to exterior (digestive, respiratory, urinary, reproductive)
  39. Serous Membrane
    • Composed of two layers of epithelial tissue
    • -----Parietal membrane
    • -----Visceral membrane
  40. Parietal membrane
    Subset of serous membrane: peripheral
  41. Visceral membrane
    Subset of serous membrane: lines the organ
Card Set
AP Ch1