general formula 3 main families
General formulas are considered organic derivitives of
Molecules are _____ around the oxygen because _____________.
bent; electrons repel eachother
Hydrogen and alkyl group/ any hydrocarbon group
Aryl group (aromatic)
Water General Formula
Alcohol General Formula
Phenol General Formula
____ is functional group in alcohols and phenols.
_____ is functional group in ethers.
_______ don't have functional groups because ________.
Alkanes; they're saturated and only have single bonds
FG of alkenes
FG of alkynes
Primary/Secondary/Tertiary alcohols happen when ___.
OH is attatched to a Primary/Secondary/Tertiary carbon.
IUPAC Alcohol Naming:
- - longest chain with OH group (OH becomes top priority, gets lowest #)
- -in cyclic compounds, OH gets #1 position (assumed so no need to name)
- -end names in -ol, and when more than one, write out full alkyl or aryl name with a di or a tri ie 1,2,3 butanetriol
IUPAC of methyl alcohol
IUPAC of ethyl alcohol
IUPAC of propyl alcohol
IUPAC of isopropyl alcohol
IUPAC of butyl alcohol
IUPAC of ethylene glycol
IUPAC of propylene glycol
IUPAC of glycerine or glycerol
- >1 OH
- but it is common not IUPAC
- not real "bonds"
- very strong intermolecular force that has a great effect on physical properties of alcohols (alcohols have higher BPs because of this)
- carbon and hydrogen have similar electronegativity so they attract well
Soluable alcohols have ______ carbons.
1-3; can disolve because of the hydrogen bonds unlike alkanes
As length of hydrocarbon chain increases, _________ decreases.
_________ is insoluable in water.
1-decanol, because the chain is non-polar while the OH is polar
Properties of alcohol +ether boiling points:
- much higher than corrosponding alkanes because of hydrogen bonding
- the more OH groups, the more H bonds, the higher the BP
- ethers have no H bonds so they have lower BP than alcohols but higher than hydrocarbons
- similar mass BP comparison:
- alkane<ethers<alcohols<diols<triols< ect.
- alkanes have non-polar H bonding, goes up from there
butyl (n-butyl) structure
- aka 1-methylpropyl
- aka 1,1-dimethylethyl
- aka 1,1-dimethylethyl
n-butyl alcohol, structure and IUPAC name?
sec-butyl alcohol, structure and IUPAC name?
tert-butyl alcohol, structure and IUPAC name?
- alkene +H2O----> alcohol
- acid catalyst such as H2SO4 or just write H+
- uses Markavnikov's rule (H goes with his friends)
- 2 types, both use H2SO4 (sulfuric acid) as a catalyst
- REMEMBER TO PUT H2O IN THE PRODUCT
- 1) alcohol--->alkene + H2O when you have excess acid (H2SO4)
- 2) alcohol--->ether + H2O when you have excess alcohol (still have catalyst of H2SO4)
- results depend on if alcohol is primary, secondary, or tertiary
- oxidizing agents can be KMnO4 or K2Cr2O7 (potassium dichromate)
- H+ (acid) catalyst
- put oxidizing agent over catalyst ---->
- if =O is on end, it's an aldehyde
- if =O is on a sec. carbon, it's a ketone
- TERTIARY ALCOHOLS CAN'T OXIDIZE BC WOULD BE TOO MANY BONDS
catalysts for hydration, dehydration, oxidation (and oxidizing agent for this one)?
- hydration: H+ such as H2SO4
- dehydration: H2SO4
- oxidation: H+ cat., oxidizing agents can be KMnO4 and K2Cr2O7
- OH group goes on C with fewest hydrogens
- H goes on C with most hydrogens
Properties of Methanol:
- previously made from wood
- 1 ton of wood = only 35lbs of methanol
- nickname is Wood Alcohol
- now made with 2H2 + CO ------>
Properties of Ethanol:
- made from sugars and starches (potatoes, corn, wheat, rice, grapes) by fermentation
- nickname is Grain Alcohol
- enzymes as catalyst
- 2x percentage of alcohol by volume
- ie 100 proof is 50% alcohol
All simple alcohols are _______ to some degree.
- lethal dose to 50% of population
- tested on animals
- varies by species
Methanol is used as a
commercial solvent for paints
The most toxic alcohol is
- can cause blindness or death
- 100mL is fatal to most
- causes liver enzymes to form formaldehyde
Antidote to methanol is
ethanol bc liver enzymes prefer the ethonol reaction bc it forms acetaldehyde which isn't nearly as toxic
Ethanol is used as
- a solvent for perfumes, medicines, mouthwashes, beverages
- gasoline additive
Ethanol used for industrial purposes is
- not taxed so it is denatured so no one can drink it
- denatured= added poisionous things like methanol
Ethanol is fatal when you injest approxamately
- prolonged exposure causes deteriation of liver, memory loss, addiction
- most serious drug problem in US
Properties of isopropyl alcohol:
- nickname: rubbing alcohol
- evaporates quickly
- cooling effect
- more toxic than ethanol but induces vomiting so usually not fatal
Polyhydric groups have
more than one OH group
dihydric alcohols are also known as
trihydric alcohols are also known as
Ethylene glycol is commonly used as an _______ because of its _______.
- anti-freeze; higher boiling point, non-corrosiveness, lowers freezing point
Propylene glycol is commonly used as a
- solvent for drugs
- moisturizing agent for foods
Glyderol/ Glycerine is a sweet, syrupy liquid used for
- lotions, lubricant, suppositories
- solvent for medicines
- the product of glycerine + nitric acid
- reaction produces temps of 3000 deg C and 2000atm
- detonates on impact, dynamite
- heart medication when having a heart attack
- very inert- don't react very much (all react with O2 though)
- heavy-stick around for a while; dangerous
- lower BP than alcohols
diethyl ether was the
first general anesthetic produced in 1846
- dinitrogen monoxide
- laughing gas-for conscious sedation
- narrow line between effective dose and lethal dose
- non-flamable, safer, less nausia
- IUPAC methyl benzene
- IUPAC hydroxy benzene
- m-xylene (can be either o,m or p)
- IUPAC (1,2 or 1,3 or 1,4 dimethyl benzene)
- IUPAC trinitrotoluene