CDO 340 1

  1. Functional Language Approach
    language is...
    • a social tool
    • a dynamic process
    • intervention needs to move beyond language itself to include better communication
    • no longer view child as solely the problem
  2. language impairments
    Apply to a heterogeneous group of developmental disorders, acquired disorders, delays or any combination of these, principally characterized by deficits and/or immaturities in the use of spoken or written language for comprehension and/or production purposes that may involve the form, content or function of language in any combination
  3. language problems often persists because..
    the topcs covered in class are often decontextualized.
  4. traditional approach
    • tight structure
    • trainer orientes
    • child as passive learner
    • uses stimulus-response reinforcement model
    • problems with generalization
    • often forgets pragmatics
  5. pragmatics
    the reasons that we use language
  6. functional approach
    • child has more control
    • decreased strusture
    • attempts to mirror lanugage-learning environment of typically developing children
  7. does functional or traditional have better results?
    • functional approach has better overall results
    • longer mean length of utterance and better behavior, etc.
  8. pragmatics is the relationship between..
    communicative partners & form and meaning of language being used
  9. functional approach considers pragmatics which
    • shift focus from treatment of symptoms to the process of communication
    • serves as the organizing framework of language
    • moves from entity approach to systems/holistic approach
  10. entity appraoch
    • uses discreet bits to try to teach children to properly communicate.
    • ex) STARCS
    • often it breaks down the task so small that it does not even resemble actual language
  11. As SLPs we must always consider..
    • the context in which we do things
    • ex) playing with a barn won't work for an inner city child that has never seen one
    • ex) autistic children have a hard time imagining things so don't ask them to
  12. generalization
    ongoing interactive process od clients and of their newly acquired language feature with the communication environment
  13. some reasons that generalization may not occur
    • taught out of context (pretending for autistic children)
    • doesn't represent the child's communication functions or linguistic knowledge and experiences (playing with a barn for an inner city kid)
    • presents to few communication opportunities (not enough practice)
    • simplified too much causing it to be out of context
  14. two types of generalization
    • content generalization
    • context generalization
  15. content generalization
    • child with Language Intervention induces language rule from examples and actual luse
    • affected by targets chosen for training and by specific training items
    • what we are working on
    • ex) vocab, verbs, two step directions
  16. context generalization
    • child uses new feature within everyday communicatin
    • facilitated when training and natural environements are similar
    • where we are working on these things and who we are working on them with
    • ex) playground, school, home, peers, teachers
  17. scope
    language rules with broad scope generalize more easily than do more restricted
  18. choosing you training targets and items
    • based on needs and interests of each child within environments
    • it must be meaningful, authetic, motivating, and interesting
    • functional and useful to child
    • goal to increase effectiveness of child-initiated communication
    • target linguistic forms across several functions
  19. what is a big influencer of generalization
    child's prior knowledge
  20. considerations for context generalization
    • language facilitators - who is going to be communicating with this child
    • training cues
    • consequences
    • location of training
  21. language facilitators
    • parents, teachers, aides, SLPs
    • the role of the SLP changes from programmer of child's environment to viewing communication partners as clients to acting as a consultant
  22. training cues
    • there is an initiation heirarchy (start with least intrusive to most intrusive)
    • should support initiation and response
    • train through linguistic and nonlinguistic cues
  23. consequences
    • how we reinforce.. want social not tangible reinforcements
    • use intermittent reinforcement
    • you must remain enthusiastic and authentic about your reinforcement
    • no using empty praise such as good talking
  24. location of training
    • ideally trained in the environment
    • use incidental teaching approach = train in environments where the language is used
  25. social reinforcement
    when we congratulate them in a real way that celebrates their communication
  26. maximizing generalization
    • best generalization = consequences related directly to language utterance and communication function of child
    • avoid empty praise
    • use response modes that demonstrate acceptance and redirection of child's utterance and maintain conversational flow
    • must be socially appropriate and authentic
    • use daily activities as your frame
  27. evidence based practice
    • clinical decision making informed by a combination of scientific evidence, clinical experience, and client needs
    • decision making processes in EBP
  28. decision making processes in EBP
    • determine the info needed and ask the correct clinical question
    • find studies that address the clinical question
    • determine the level of evidence and critically evaluate studies
    • evaluate the info for the specific case in question
    • integrate the info and make decisions
    • evaluate teatment outcomes to measure efficacy
Card Set
CDO 340 1
CDO 340 lecture 1