what could be a constrant?
what does the enviroment do for development?
what is the task?
what is motor development?
1-> 2-> 3
- cumultive process- step by step
- rate= time/ stage - milestones
what is motor development?
development of movement over time involving IET
what is motor learning?
gains due to practice and experience
what is motor control?
- nervous system control of movement
- CNS= brain, spinal cord, nerves
what development does the individual have?
- physical maturation
- physical growth
what is the newell approach?
- interaction of individual
- taske or purpose of movement
- over time these interactions lead to changes in movement
what are some types of research studies? 3
- cross sectional
- mixed longitudinal
what is longitudial study?
- over time
- same cohort/group with similar characteristics
- same task/behavior
- Adv. same group
- Dis. time consuming
what is cross sectional study?
disern development from different groups
- Adv. time, observe large groups
- Dis. do not directly observe change = assumption
who created the (maturation perspective) normative descriptive period?
what did they do?
- G.L Rarick
- Ruth Glassow
- compared kids
- and different age groups
- genetics and heredity
- go thru stages
what is the (maturation perspective) biomechanical descriptive period? - enviroment
- biomechanics of movement
- contribution: age related changes in motor development
- WHO: Glassow
what thought of information processing?
Skinner and Bandura
what is information processing?
brain recieves info from enviroment
what is skinners stimulus response effect?
- learning thru stimulus and response bonds
- response reinforced= do again (appropiate only)
- increase likelihood of response
- continuous reinforcement = fastest learning
- to much reinforcement - wont try
- intermittant reiforcement - BEST
what is Banduras social learning triangle from top down ^
- enviromental influences
- behavioral influences
- cognitive influences
- observation of others = modeling
what are the necessary conditions for modeling in social learning perspective
- individual characteristics
what is the ecological perspective? - task
- dynamic approach
- motor control
- body driven
- movement = constrants of the body
- WHO: Newell
what is the perception approach?
- verbal cues
- moved based on enviroment
- affordance - interaction between object and individual
- WHO: Gibson
who said movement is biologically determined "time clock" -maturation response
who said interaction between task, individual = ecological
who said brain recieves info from enviroment - processing
who said stimulus and response?
what is the enviroment?
unseen forces that govern our movements
what are some influences that go over constraints of movement that have to do with gravity?
- size and mass of individual
- shape and structure
- tendon length and laxity
- the goal
movement competency: why do we move?- What comes up must come down
- complete task
- pursue goal
- optimize performance
moving against gravity
moving against gravity when force
is used is what concept?
force, action and reaction concept
what is moving against gravity?
what is moving against gravity when force is used?
action and reaction
Newton had which laws?
- 1.law in motion:
- object at rest
- obejct in motion
- 2. force to move
- greater force
- 3. every action has a reaction
1st law of motion
object at rest =
rest- unless acted upon
1st law of motion
object in motion =
motion- unless acted upon
2nd law of motion
takes force to move something at ____
2nd law of motion
greater force =
performance can be improved if force is applied over ______ distance
performance can be improved by increasing the ____ of motion
what does experience offer an individual?
allows individual to reconize optimal range of motion
3rd law of action and reaction
to every action there is a equal and opposite ________
objects linear velocity =
rotational velocity x radius of rotation
laws of inertia
resistance to motion has to accomodate ____ and _____ length
mass and limb
open kinetic chain
maximal performance dependent on effecient sequence of ________?
what does kinetic mean?
what does chain mean?
what are the rules of kinetic chain?
- 1. optimal sequence of movement
- 2. timing
what is stability?
ability to resist motion
what is balance?
ability to maintain equalibrium
what to do to decrease impact?
- increase amount of time
- increase the area
what is the center of gravity?
adding stability by keeping low and inside base of support
patterns of physical growth are largely _____ ?
genetic - weight, height
post natal what is the seqeunce?
what happens in the seqeunce?
normative descriptive period is what approach?
stages of growth for girls and boys?
what is APHV?
what does it mean?
- age at peek height velocity
- age at when changes from slow to fast growth
variables of growth refering to height
follow sigmoid pattern
_____ growth to ______ growth
boys stop getting tall when?
girls stop getting tall when?
variables of growth refereing to weight
greatly effected by what extrinsic factors?
- amount of fat tissue
what is relative growth?
refers to growth patterns of different organs and tissues
how do growth patterns affect performance?
what is physiological maturation?
development process leading to state of full function
physical maturation is a structural constraint that can be a powerful predictor of _______
development of secondary sex characteristics effects what?
other entrinsic factors that effect growth and development?
what are some entrinsic factors of aging?
- fat gain
- muscle loss
function of the skeletal system?
- levers of locomotion
- attatchment site for tendons
- protect vital organs
what is the foremost function of skeletal system?
support loads while resisting fracture
what is the axial bone?
includes flat bones such as skull, scapula, vertabrae and pelvis
what is appendicular?
comprises of all long bones including tibia, femur, humerous
what is cancellous tissue?
what is periostium?
connects to tendons
what is ossification in growth?
process of cartilage transformation to bone tissue
what are the two centers of ossification in growth?
- primary- midpoints of bones
- secondary- epiphyses bone structuring
what is modeling in growth?
what is structural optimization in growth?
what are cells of adaption?
- bone cells that are responsible for formation and maintence of bone
- regulate bone metabolism by communicating
- respond to stimuli in a process of modeling and remodeling
what is a osteoclast?
carry out reabsorbtion or removal of old damaged bone
what is an osteocyte?
a bone cell- formed when osteoblast becomes inbedded
what is osteoblast?
sensative cells responsible for communicating enviroment signals
what are brain timing cells?
surface of the tissue that sense strain
what are the types of bone?
what is a tabecular bone?
- highly poruous
- found on the end of long bones
- lacks ability to tolerate peak locations
what is a corticol bone?
- dense, calcified
- two surfaces: periostium and endiostiem
what is endosteum?
contains bone surface cells which carry out adaption
what is modeling is the skeletal system?
- adapts or alters its structure to accomodate to new stressors placed on it by influences
- ex) increase in muscle growth
- changes in body size
- lengthing of bones
modeling process involves ________ or ________ tissue to optomize bone geometry (size, shape, position)
what does modeling involve when osteoclast actitvation and bone removal or ________ actitvation and bone formation
when bones get wider -> __________ formation
what causes mechanical loading?-modeling
stressed, bone strains (bend) intiates activity of remodeling
what is remodeling?
- process in which the skeleton adapts to mechanical stimuli and repairs old or damaged tissue
- involves osteoclast and osteoblast - to produce and maintain
how long does remodeling take place?
what is sensation?
neural activty triggered by a stimulus
what is perception?
how we attach a meaning to the sensory stimuli
of the preceptual systems of sensory what is visual sensation?
acuity- sharpness of sight
of the preceptual systems of sensory what is auditory?
being able to sense where a sound is coming from
of the preceptual systems of sensory what is kinesthsis or proprioception?
- relating where body parts are
- position of body
- body movements
- nature of objects
what are the preceptual systems of sensory?
- visual sensation
- kinesthesis or proprioception
differences of visual sensation between someone old and young?
- vision gets better for young
- vision gets worse for old
what is acuity?
sharpness of sight
what is the perception of 3D space?
what is retinal disparity?
each eye is responsible for picking up specific stimuli based on its position
what is motion parallax?
- nearer objects overlap
- move the distant one = better depth of view
what are perceptions of objects?
- size and shape
- time and experience
what is important for size and shape with perception of objects?
- edges and boundries
- from ground up or as a whole
what are the perceptions of motion?
the perception of motion becomes difficult for who?
perception of motion is developed over time for who?
what is the body sense?
- position of body parts
- position of body in space
- body movements
- nature in which objects come in contact with body
what is peroproception?
muscles, joints, ears, reflexes
what is tactile localization?
ability to identify where touch occurs with out weight
what is body awareness?
- reconizing body parts/dimensions of movement
- side to side
what is lateral dominace?
preferred side of body
limb movements improve with what?
what is spatial orientation?
body locations and orientation in space
what is directionality?
used of vision and laterality to move
what is hyperplasia?
increase in the number of muscle cells
what is hyperytrophy?
increase in muscle size cell
what do our muscles do as we grow?
grow in diameter and length
amount of increase in muscle fiber diameter is related to ______ of muscles activity during growth
muscles increase in length as skeleton grows because of the addition of ________
what is sarcomeres?
contractile units of muscle cell
three types of muscle fibers?
what are type 1 and type 2a and b
- slow twitch-1
- fast twitch-2
type 1 slow twitch fibers do?
what would change muscle mass?
poor diet, lack of activity
after 50 years of age what happens to muscle fibers?
decrease in size and loss in #
what is the function of the endocrine system?
regulate content and tempature of the body
what does growth hormone due for growth during childhood?
stimulate protein anabolism
what do thyroid hormones do?
- influence whole body growth
- skeletal growth
what do gonadal hormones do?
stimulate secondary sex characteristics and sex organs
what does insulin do?
vital for carbohydrate sysnthesis
what happens to the endocrine, nervous and immune system when the body ages
gradually fail to function
the hormones that decrease efficiancy with age?
what is the function of the cardio-respitory system?
to pump blood through the body
what are the componants of the cardio-respitory system?
- left ventricle
- right ventricle
which ventricle is bigger when born and the other ventricle has to catch up?
basic components of circulatory system?
- pulmonary veins
- aortic vavles
- superior vena cava
what is the growth of the cardio-respitory system?
- follows sigmoid pattern of whole body growth
- including growth spurt in adolescence
- heart volume to body weight remains same throughout growth
what are the four componants under nervous system control?
what is the brain basic elements of the neuron?
- cell body
- myelin sheath
when are neurons formed?
3rd or 4th prenatal month
factors that can negatively effect neuron development?
- illicet drugs
what are some things that happen to the nervous system when the body ages?
what can help slow this process?
- slower responses
- loss of neurons, dendrites
what are some body structural constraints?
what are 4 aspects of auditory perception?
- difference in sounds
- auditory figure and ground
for auditory perception what does it mean to location?
locate sound by determining direction and distance
from auditory perception what does it mean for differences in sound?
- way to differentiate similar sounds
- refine until age 13
- decreases with age so context clues are used
frm auditory perception what does it have to do with patterns?
- 3 properties:
from auditory perception what does it have to do with auditory figure and ground
- listen to certain sounds while ignoring other irrelevent sounds
- it becomes more difficult with age