motor development

  1. what could be a constrant?
    • individual
    • enviroment
    • task
    • psychological
  2. what is an individual?
    • physical
    • mental
    • emotional
  3. what does the enviroment do for development?
    encourage/discourage surrondings
  4. what is the task?
  5. what is motor development?
    1-> 2-> 3
    • cumultive process- step by step
    • rate= time/ stage - milestones
    • sequential
  6. what is motor development?
    development of movement over time involving IET
  7. what is motor learning?
    gains due to practice and experience
  8. what is motor control?
    • nervous system control of movement
    • CNS= brain, spinal cord, nerves
  9. what development does the individual have?
    • physical maturation
    • physical growth
    • aging
  10. what is the newell approach?
    • interaction of individual
    • enviroment
    • taske or purpose of movement
    • over time these interactions lead to changes in movement
  11. what are some types of research studies? 3
    • longitudial
    • cross sectional
    • mixed longitudinal
  12. what is longitudial study?
    • over time
    • same cohort/group with similar characteristics
    • same task/behavior

    • Adv. same group
    • Dis. time consuming
  13. what is cross sectional study?
    disern development from different groups

    • Adv. time, observe large groups
    • Dis. do not directly observe change = assumption
  14. who created the (maturation perspective) normative descriptive period?

    what did they do?
    • G.L Rarick
    • Ruth Glassow
    • Gesell
    • McGraw

    • compared kids
    • and different age groups
    • genetics and heredity
    • go thru stages
  15. what is the (maturation perspective) biomechanical descriptive period? - enviroment
    • biomechanics of movement
    • contribution: age related changes in motor development
    • WHO: Glassow
  16. what thought of information processing?
    Skinner and Bandura
  17. what is information processing?
    brain recieves info from enviroment
  18. what is skinners stimulus response effect?
    • learning thru stimulus and response bonds
    • response reinforced= do again (appropiate only)
    • increase likelihood of response
    • continuous reinforcement = fastest learning
    • to much reinforcement - wont try
    • intermittant reiforcement - BEST
  19. what is Banduras social learning triangle from top down ^
    • learning
    • enviromental influences
    • behavioral influences
    • cognitive influences
    • observation of others = modeling
  20. what are the necessary conditions for modeling in social learning perspective
    • attention
    • individual characteristics
    • retention
    • reproduction
    • motivation
  21. what is the ecological perspective? - task
    • dynamic approach
    • motor control
    • body driven
    • movement = constrants of the body
    • WHO: Newell
  22. what is the perception approach?
    • verbal cues
    • moved based on enviroment
    • affordance - interaction between object and individual
    • WHO: Gibson
  23. who said movement is biologically determined "time clock" -maturation response
    • Gesell
    • Myrtle
  24. who said interaction between task, individual = ecological
  25. who said brain recieves info from enviroment - processing
    • skinner
    • bandura
  26. who said stimulus and response?
  27. what is the enviroment?
    unseen forces that govern our movements
  28. what are some influences that go over constraints of movement that have to do with gravity?
    • size and mass of individual
    • shape and structure
    • tendon length and laxity
    • the goal
  29. movement competency: why do we move?- What comes up must come down
    • complete task
    • pursue goal
    • optimize performance
  30. moving against gravity 
    moving against gravity when force
    is used is what concept?
    force, action and reaction concept
  31. what is moving against gravity?
  32. what is moving against gravity when force is used?
    action and reaction
  33. Newton had which laws?
    • in motion:
    • object at rest
    • obejct in motion
    • 2. force to move
    • greater force
    • 3. every action has a reaction
  34. 1st law of motion
    object at rest =
    rest- unless acted upon
  35. 1st law of motion
    object in motion =
    motion- unless acted upon
  36. 2nd law of motion
    takes force to move something at ____
  37. 2nd law of motion
    greater force =
    greater reaction
  38. performance can be improved if force is applied over ______ distance
  39. performance can be improved by increasing the ____ of motion
  40. what does experience offer an individual?
    allows individual to reconize optimal range of motion
  41. 3rd law of action and reaction
    to every action there is a equal and opposite ________
  42. objects linear velocity =
    rotational velocity x radius of rotation
  43. laws of inertia
    resistance to motion has to accomodate ____ and _____ length
    mass and limb
  44. open kinetic chain
    maximal performance dependent on effecient sequence of ________?
  45. what does kinetic mean?
    what does chain mean?
    • motion
    • sequence
  46. what are the rules of kinetic chain?
    • 1. optimal sequence of movement
    • 2. timing
  47. what is stability?
    ability to resist motion
  48. what is balance?
    ability to maintain equalibrium
  49. what to do to decrease impact?
    • increase amount of time
    • increase the area
  50. what is the center of gravity?
    adding stability by keeping low and inside base of support
  51. patterns of physical growth are largely _____ ?
    general sequence
    individual differences
    genetic - weight, height
  52. post natal what is the seqeunce?
    what happens in the seqeunce?

    enter sigmoid
  53. normative descriptive period is what approach?
  54. stages of growth for girls and boys?
    • ~9 years
    • ~11 years
  55. what is APHV?
    what does it mean?
    • age at peek height velocity
    • age at when changes from slow to fast growth
  56. variables of growth refering to height
    follow sigmoid pattern
    _____ growth to ______ growth
    boys stop getting tall when?
    girls stop getting tall when?
    • slow to rapid
    • 18
    • 16
  57. variables of growth refereing to weight
    sigmoid curve
    greatly effected by what extrinsic factors?
    • muscle
    • amount of fat tissue
    • diet
    • diesease
  58. what is relative growth?
    refers to growth patterns of different organs and tissues
  59. how do growth patterns affect performance?
    • balance
    • coordination
    • speed
  60. what is physiological maturation?
    development process leading to state of full function
  61. physical maturation is a structural constraint that can be a powerful predictor of _______
  62. development of secondary sex characteristics effects what?
  63. other entrinsic factors that effect growth and development?
    • nutrition
    • disease
  64. what are some entrinsic factors of aging?
    • diet
    • exercise
    • fat gain
    • muscle loss
    • osteoporosis
  65. function of the skeletal system?
    • levers of locomotion
    • attatchment site for tendons
    • protect vital organs
  66. what is the foremost function of skeletal system?
    support loads while resisting fracture
  67. what is the axial bone?
    includes flat bones such as skull, scapula, vertabrae and pelvis
  68. what is appendicular?
    comprises of all long bones including tibia, femur, humerous
  69. what is cancellous tissue?
    shock absorber
  70. what is periostium?
    connects to tendons
  71. what is ossification in growth?
    process of cartilage transformation to bone tissue
  72. what are the two centers of ossification in growth?
    • primary- midpoints of bones
    • secondary- epiphyses bone structuring
  73. what is modeling in growth?
    building up
  74. what is structural optimization in growth?
  75. what are cells of adaption?
    • bone cells that are responsible for formation and maintence of bone
    • regulate bone metabolism by communicating
    • respond to stimuli in a process of modeling and remodeling
  76. what is a osteoclast?
    carry out reabsorbtion or removal of old damaged bone
  77. what is an osteocyte?
    a bone cell- formed when osteoblast becomes inbedded
  78. what is osteoblast?
    sensative cells responsible for communicating enviroment signals
  79. what are brain timing cells?
    surface of the tissue that sense strain
  80. what are the types of bone?
    • tabecular
    • corticol
    • endosteum
  81. what is a tabecular bone?
    • lattice-like
    • highly poruous
    • found on the end of long bones
    • lacks ability to tolerate peak locations
  82. what is a corticol bone?
    • dense, calcified
    • two surfaces: periostium and endiostiem
  83. what is endosteum?
    contains bone surface cells which carry out adaption
  84. what is modeling is the skeletal system?
    • adapts or alters its structure to accomodate to new stressors placed on it by influences
    • ex) increase in muscle growth
    • changes in body size
    • lengthing of bones
  85. modeling process involves ________ or ________ tissue to optomize bone geometry (size, shape, position)
    • adding
    • subtracting
  86. what does modeling involve when osteoclast actitvation and bone removal or ________ actitvation and bone formation
  87. when bones get wider -> __________ formation
  88. what causes mechanical loading?-modeling
    stressed, bone strains (bend) intiates activity of remodeling
  89. what is remodeling?
    • process in which the skeleton adapts to mechanical stimuli and repairs old or damaged tissue
    • involves osteoclast and osteoblast - to produce and maintain
  90. how long does remodeling take place?
    120 days
  91. what is sensation?
    neural activty triggered by a stimulus
  92. what is perception?
    how we attach a meaning to the sensory stimuli
  93. of the preceptual systems of sensory what is visual sensation?
    acuity- sharpness of sight
  94. of the preceptual systems of sensory what is auditory?
    being able to sense where a sound is coming from
  95. of the preceptual systems of sensory what is kinesthsis or proprioception?
    • relating where body parts are
    • position of body
    • body movements
    • nature of objects
  96. what are the preceptual systems of sensory?
    • visual sensation
    • auditory
    • kinesthesis or proprioception
  97. differences of visual sensation between someone old and young?
    • vision gets better for young
    • vision gets worse for old
  98. what is acuity?
    sharpness of sight
  99. what is the perception of 3D space?
    • depth
    • distance
    • acuity
  100. what is retinal disparity?
    each eye is responsible for picking up specific stimuli based on its position
  101. what is motion parallax?
    • nearer objects overlap
    • move the distant one = better depth of view
  102. what are perceptions of objects?
    • size and shape
    • time and experience
  103. what is important for size and shape with perception of objects?
    • edges and boundries
    • from ground up or as a whole
  104. what are the perceptions of motion?
    • direction
    • velocity
  105. the perception of motion becomes difficult for who?
    older ppl
  106. perception of motion is developed over time for who?
  107. what is the body sense?
    • position of body parts
    • position of body in space
    • body movements
    • nature in which objects come in contact with body
  108. what is peroproception?
    muscles, joints, ears, reflexes
  109. what is tactile localization?
    ability to identify where touch occurs with out weight
  110. what is body awareness?
    • reconizing body parts/dimensions of movement
    • up/down
    • side to side
  111. what is lateral dominace?
    preferred side of body
  112. limb movements improve with what?
  113. what is spatial orientation?
    body locations and orientation in space
  114. what is directionality?
    used of vision and laterality to move
  115. what is hyperplasia?
    increase in the number of muscle cells
  116. what is hyperytrophy?
    increase in muscle size cell
  117. what do our muscles do as we grow?
    grow in diameter and length
  118. amount of increase in muscle fiber diameter is related to ______ of muscles activity during growth
  119. muscles increase in length as skeleton grows because of the addition of ________
  120. what is sarcomeres?
    contractile units of muscle cell 
  121. three types of muscle fibers?
    • type 1
    • type 2a
    • type 2b
  122. what are type 1 and type 2a and b
    • slow twitch-1
    • fast twitch-2
  123. type 1 slow twitch fibers do?
    endurance activities
  124. what would change muscle mass?
    poor diet, lack of activity
  125. after 50 years of age what happens to muscle fibers?
    decrease in size and loss in #
  126. what is the function of the endocrine system?
    regulate content and tempature of the body
  127. what does growth hormone due for growth during childhood?
    stimulate protein anabolism
  128. what do thyroid hormones do? 
    • influence whole body growth 
    • skeletal growth
  129. what do gonadal hormones do?
    stimulate secondary sex characteristics and sex organs
  130. what does insulin do?
    vital for carbohydrate sysnthesis
  131. what happens to the endocrine, nervous and immune system when the body ages 
    gradually fail to function
  132. the hormones that decrease efficiancy with age?
    • thyroid
    • gonandol
    • insulin
  133. what is the function of the cardio-respitory system?
    to pump blood through the body
  134. what are the componants of the cardio-respitory system?
    • left ventricle 
    • right ventricle
    • lungs
  135. which ventricle is bigger when born and the other ventricle has to catch up?
    right ventricle
  136. basic components of circulatory system?
    • pulmonary veins
    • artieries
    • aortic vavles
    • atriums
    • superior vena cava
  137. what is the growth of the cardio-respitory system?
    • follows sigmoid pattern of whole body growth
    • including growth spurt in adolescence 
    • heart volume to body weight remains same throughout growth
  138. what are the four componants under nervous system control?
    • neurons
    • glands
    • organs
    • muscles
  139. what is the brain basic elements of the neuron?
    • axon
    • dendrites
    • cell body
    • myelin sheath
  140. when are neurons formed?
    3rd or 4th prenatal month
  141. factors that can negatively effect neuron development?
    • smoking
    • alcohol
    • illicet drugs
    • malnutrition
  142. what are some things that happen to the nervous system when the body ages?
    what can help slow this process?
    • slower responses
    • loss of neurons, dendrites
    • exercise
  143. what are some body structural constraints?
    • weight
    • height
    • body fat
  144. what are 4 aspects of auditory perception?
    • location
    • difference in sounds
    • patterns
    • auditory figure and ground
  145. for auditory perception what does it mean to location?
    locate sound by determining direction and distance
  146. from auditory perception what does it mean for differences in sound?
    • way to differentiate similar sounds
    • refine until age 13
    • decreases with age so context clues are used
  147. frm auditory perception what does it have to do with patterns?
    • 3 properties:
    • time
    • intensity
    • frequency
  148. from auditory perception what does it have to do with auditory figure and ground
    • listen to certain sounds while ignoring other irrelevent sounds 
    • it becomes more difficult with age
Card Set
motor development