1. Epicranius
    covers upper part of the cranium and consist of two muscular parts - frontalis over the frontal bone and occipitalis over the occipital bone
  2. Orbicularis oculi
    surrounds the eye
  3. orbicularis oris
    encircles the mouth
  4. buccinator
    located in the wall of the cheek
  5. zygomaticus major and minor
    zygomatic arch downward to the corner of the mouth
  6. platysma
    extends from the chest over the neck to the face
  7. masseter
    ORIGIN lower border of zygomatic arch

    INSERTION lateral surface of mandible

    ACTION elevates mandible
  8. temporalis
    over the temporal bone
  9. medial pterygoid
    extends back and downward from the sphenoid, palatine and maxillary bones to the ramus of the mandible
  10. lateral pterygoid
    extend forward from the region just below the mandibular conyle to the sphenoid bone.
  11. sternocleidomastoid
    ORIGIN - Anterior surface of sternum and upper surface of clavicle

    INSERTION - Mastoid process of temporal bone

    ACTION - Pulls head to one side, flexes neck or elevates sternum
  12. splenius capitis
    LOCATION - back of neck connecting the base of the skull to the vertebrae in the neck and upper thorax
  13. semispinalis cpitis
    LOCATION - extends upward from the vertebrae in the neck and thorax to the occipital bone
  14. Erector spinae
    LOCATION - run longitudinally along the back and can be divided into lateral, intermediate and medial groups.
  15. Trapezius
    ORIGIN - occipital bone and spines of cervical and thoracic verebrae

    INSERTION - clavicle, spine, and acromion process of scapula

    ACTION - rotates scapula; various fibers raise scapula, pull scapula medially, or pull scapula and ahoulder downward
  16. Rhomboid major and minor
    LOCATION - connect the vertebral column to the scapula
  17. Levator scapulae
    ORIGIN - transverse processes of cervical vertebrae

    INSERTION - medial margin of scapula

    ACTION - elevates scapula
  18. serratus anterior
    LOCATION - side of the chest
  19. pectoralis minor
    LOCATION - beneath the pectoralis major. extends laterally upward from the ribs to the scapula
  20. Coracobrachialis
    LOCATION - the scapula to the middle of the humerus along the medial suface
  21. pectoralis major
    ORIGIN - Clavicle, sternum and costal cartilages of upper ribs

    INSERTION - intertubercular groove of humerus

    ACTION - flexes, adducts and rotates arm medially
  22. Teres major
    ORIGIN - Lateral border of scapula

    INSERTION - Intertubercular groove of humerus

    ACTION - extends, adducts and rotates arm medially
  23. Latissimus dorsi
    ORIGIN - spines of sacral, lumbar and lower thoracic vertebrae, illiac crest, and lower ribs

    INSERTION - intertubercular groove of humerus

    ACTION - extends, adducts and rotates the arm mediallly or pulls the shoulder downward and back
  24. Supraspinatus, infraspinatus, teres minor, subscapularis
    known as SITS muscle group - forms rotator cuff
  25. Deltoid
    ORIGIN - Acromion process, spine of scapula and the clavicle

    INSERTION - deltoid tuberosity of humerus

    ACTION - abducts, extends, and flexes arm
  26. biceps brachii
    ORIGIN - coracoid process and tubercle above glenoid cavity of scapula

    INSERTION - radial tuberosity of radius

    ACTION - flexes elbow and rotates hand laterally
  27. brachialis
    LOCATION - beneath the biceps brachii, connects the shaft of the humerus to the ulna and is the strongest flexor of the elbow
  28. brachioradialis
    LOCATION - connects the humerus to the radius
  29. Ticeps brachii
    ORIGIN - tubercle below glenoid cavity and lateral and medial surfaces of humerus

    INSERTION - olecranon process of ulna

    ACTION - exends elbow
  30. supinator
    LOACTION - ulna and lateral end of the humerus to the radius
  31. pronator teres
    LOCATION - connects the ends of the humerus and ulna to the radius
  32. external
  33. oblique
    LOCATION - slant downward from the lower ribs to the pelvic girdle and the linea alba
  34. internal oblique
    LOCATION - beneath the external oblizue and runs up and forward from the pelvic girdle to the lower ribs
  35. transversus abdominis
    LOCATION - beneath the external and internal obliques, horizontally from the lower ribs, lumbar vertebrae and ilium to the linea alba and pubic bones.
  36. Rectus abdominis
    ORIGIN - crest of pubis and symphysis pubis

    INSERTION - xiphoid process of sternum and costal cartilages

    ACTION - tenses abdominal wall and compresses abdominal contents, also flexes vertebral column
  37. Levator ani
    ORIGIN - pubic bone and ischial spine

    INSERTION - coccyx

    ACTION - supports pelvic viscera and provides sphincterlike action in anal canal and vagina
  38. Psoas Major
    ORIGIN - Lumbar interverebral discs; bodies and transverse processes of lumbar vertebrae

    INSERTION - Lesser trochanter of femur

    ACTION - flexes thigh
  39. Illiacus
    LOCATION - lateral side of the psoas major
  40. Gluteus Maximus
    ORIGIN - Sacrum, coccyx, and posterior surface of ilium

    INSERTION - posterior surface of femur and fascia of thigh

    ACTION - extends hip
  41. gluteus medius
    LOCATION - partly beneath gluteus maximus and extends from the ilium to the femur
  42. gluteus minimus
    LOCATION - beneath gluteus medius
  43. piriformis
    LOCATION - shaped like a pyramid inferior to gluteus minimus
  44. tensor fasciae latae
    LOCATION - connects the ilium to the iliotibial tract which continues down to the tibia
  45. pectineus
    LOCATION - from the spine of the pubis to the femur
  46. adductor longus
    LOCATION - triangular that runs from the pubic bone to the femur
  47. adductor brevis
    LOCATION - short, triangular muscle that runs from the pubic bone to the femur
  48. adductor magnus
    LOCATION - largest adductor in thigh, triangular, connects ischium to the femur
  49. gracilis
    ORIGIN - lowere edge of symphysis pubis

    INSERTION - medial surface of tibia

    ACTION - adducts thigh and flexes knee
  50. biceps femoris
    ORIGIN - ischial tuberosity and linea aspera of femur

    INSERTION - head of fibula and laeral condyle of tibia

    ACTION - flexes knee, rotates leg laterally and extends thigh
  51. semitendinosus
    LOCATION - back of the thigh toward the medial side connecting he ischium to the proximal end of the tibia
  52. semimembranosus
    LOCATION - most medially located muscle in the back of the thigh connects the ischium to the tibia
  53. sartorius
    ORIGIN - anterior superior iliac spine

    INSERTION - medial surface of tibia

    ACTION - flexes knee and hip, abducts and rotates thigh laterally
  54. quadriceps femoris group
    LOCATION - front and sides of the thigh.

    composed of four parts - rectus femoris, vastus lateratlis, vastus medialis, and vastus intermedius
  55. tibialis anterior
    LOCATION - front of the tibia
  56. fibularis tertius
    LOCATION - connects fibula to lateral side of the foot
  57. extensor digitorum longus
    ORIGIN - lateral condyle of tibia and anterior surface of fibula

    INSERTION - dorsal sufaces of second and third phalanges of four lateral toes

    ACTION - dorsiflexion and eversion of foot, extends toes
  58. extensor hallucis longus
    ORIGIN - anterior suface of fibula

    INSERTION - distal phalanx of the great toe

    ACTION - extends great toe, dorsiflexion and inversion of foot
  59. gastrocnemius
    ORIGIN - lateral and medial condyles of femur

    INSERTION - posterior suface of calcaneus

    ACTION - plantar flexion of foot, flexes knee
  60. soleus
    LOCATION - beneath the gatrocnemius and helps form calf of leg
  61. plantaris
    LOCATION - connects the femur to the heel
  62. flexor digitorum longus
    ORIGIN - poserior suface of tibia

    INSERTION - Distal phalanges of four lateral toes

    ACTION - plantar flexion and inversion of foot, flexes four lateral toes
  63. tibialis posterior
    LOCATION - deepest of muscles on the back of leg connecting the fibula and tibia to the ankle bones
  64. fibularis longus
    LOCATION - lateral side of the leg connecting the tibia and the fibula to the foot
  65. fascia
    dense connective tissue that hold skeletal muscle in position
  66. tendon
    cordlike fascia that projecs beyond the ends of its muscle fibers that may intertwine with those in the perioseum of a bone
  67. aponeuroses
    broad, fibrous sheets that may attach to bone or the coverings of adjacent muscles.
  68. four layers of skeletal muscle
    • fascia - covers the surface of the muscle
    • epimysium - lies beneath the fascia
    • perimysium - extends into the structure of the muscle where it separates muscle cells into fascicles
    • endomysium - separates individual muscle fibers
  69. steps of muscle contraction
    • - brain sends signal to neuromuscular junction and neuron releases ACH into the muscle fiber
    • - muscle impulse travels into transverse tubules
    • - then throughout the sarcoplasmic reticulum
    • - Ca+ is released into the sarcoplasm
    • - as Ca+ increases it releases troponin tropomyosin from actin binding sites allowing myosin to link with actin
  70. steps of muscle relaxation
    • - acetylcholinesterase degrade ach
    • -Ca+ decreases
    • - troponin/tropomysin goes back to ends of actin
    • - myosin lets go and muscle relaxes
  71. isotonic contraction
    shortening of muscle occurs also called concentric
  72. isometric contraction
    muscle remains same length
  73. origin
    immovable end
  74. insertion
    movable end
  75. prime mover or agonist
    muscle primarily responsible for producing an action
  76. synergists
    muscles that contract and assist a prime mover
  77. antagonists
    resist a prime mover's action and cause movement in the opposite direction
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