and little reconition that children arent adults
what is preformationism?
reformation period children are?
- naturally evil and must be conformed
- emphasis on harsh disipline
enlightenment period children are?
WHAT effect do parents have?
WHO is the influence?
- -children come in to the world with out predispositions
- -parents have large effect on development progress
- -opposite of reformation
- -JOHN LOCKE
what is tabula rasa?
what are children in the 18th century? according to Rosseau
- noble savage
- children are born w/knowledge of right and wrong
- requires little adult involvement
4 stages of learning according to Rosseau?
- late childhood
baby biographies are what?
analyze behaviors and natural reflexes
how did charles darwin assist?
developed theories which focus on adaptibility on human behavior
what is the normative approach?
WHO was important during this?
- popularized parent advice literature
- Hall and Gesell
what was the 1st objective study by Gesell?
Gesell Dome with baby
what is the mental testing movement?
- develop test to identify mentally retarded children in paris
- examined norms in cognitive thinking who were outside the norms
- interested in individual differences
what does a theory do?
- defines events
- describes relationships
- provide explanation
- guides future research
- sex drives to compete with societal expectations
- resolves conflict shapes development
what theory developed through Freud's work?
what is the psychoanalytic theory?
- used hypothesis
- emphasized unconcious through process
- free association and dream analysis
what are the three parts of Freuds psychosexual theory?
What is the ID?
What are the two parts of ID?
- basic urges
- Eros: life force- drive for good/satisfaction
- Thanatos: death force- drive for death/destruction
- -ID could destroy world by itself
what is the EGO?
- develops in early infancy
- seeks to satisfy in socially responsible ways
- must resolve competing demands of ID and SUPEREGO
what is SUPEREGO?
- develops between ages 3-6 years
- values and morality
- learning from enviroment
Freud's Stages (5)
fixation of stage?
- exploring world through mouth
- ex. nailbiting
fixation of stage?
- seek pleasure through going to the bathroom
- anal retentive- controlling
fixation on stage?
- penis is center of attention
- never want to move away from home
- no sexual urges
- time for education
- puberty restarts sexual urges
- healthy development leads to love, marriage
what did Freud theory contribute?
layout stage theory
critisism of freud theory?
- no observations of children
- no variance
what did erickson psychosocial theory focus on?
- positive and negative attributes developed
- focus more on social than sexual
difference between freud vs. erickson
- whole lifespan
- positives and negatives
- specifies life changes
what is behaviorism?
- emphasis on enviromental influences
- focus on observable behavior
what kind of classical conditioning did watson do?
- applied it to childrens behavior
- little albert and the rat (fear all white things)
what is operant conditioning?
responses are learned to produce some reward or desired effect
what is a positive reinforcement?
- give reward to encourage behavior
- -gold star
what is negative reinforcement?
- take away aversive thing to encourage behavior
- -seat belt noise
what is positive punishment?
- give aversive thing to discourage behavior
what is negative punishment?
- take away reward to discourage behavior
what is the social learning theory
who made the theory?
- people learn by modeling or imintating others
what is cognitive developmental theory?
who made theory?
- children adapt new information so that it fits with exsisting cognitive structures
what are the four stages of Piagets theory?
- sensorimotor stage- infant
- preoperational stage- early childhood
- concreteoperational stage- mid childhood
- formal operational stage- adolescence
what is vygotsky social cultural theory?
culture values and norms are transmitted to child
What is the ecological systems theory?
who created it?
- empazies child biology and many contextual systems in which child is embedded
What are the five nested contextual systems?
what is the microsystem?
anything child interacts with daily
what is the mesosystem?
how different componants of the microsystem interact
what is the exosystem?
interact with but not on regular basis
what is the macrosystem?
cultural constucts, laws, customs
what is the chronosystem?
how systems develop and change over time
what are the steps of the scientific method?
- identify a question
- forming a hypothesis
- choose a research method
- collect data
- draw conclusions
where does an idea come from?
- previous research
- personal observation
what is a descriptive design?
describes situation of study
what is correlation design?
relationship between two or more variables that are related
what is experimental design?
can see cause and effect between two or more variables
types of descriptive studies?
what is a case study?
extensive in depth interview with a particular individual or small group
what is a ethnography?
researchers immerse themselves in another culture and try not to influence
what is a correlation study?
- two or more variables are related to each other
- cannot determine causation
what are the types of correlation studies ? -3
- cross sectional study
what is a cross sectional study?
people at different ages are compared at the same point in time
problems with a cross sectional study?
- cannot see differences in age
- cohort effect
what is longitudinal study?
one group with behavior of participants measured over time
problems with a longitdinal study?
- cohort effects
- time consuming
what is cross sequential study?
- examine two or more cohorts
- takes less time
- less likely to contribute to cohort effects
what is experimental design?
- gold standard
- we can see if one variable causes effect on other variables
what is random assignment?
- randomly put into groups
- -no bias
what is an independent variable?
manipulate in the study
what is a dependent variable?
limitations with experimental design?
- what happens in experiment might not happen in real life
- some variables cannot be manipulated
- demand characteristic
ways to collect data?
- observation- structured/natural
- interviews- clincal/structured
what is oberservation natural way to collect data?
what is a observation structured way to collect data??
give them what you want them to interact with
what is the survey way to collect data?
report on others or self
what is interviews with clinical data collection?
partitipant share what they thinking and feeling
what is interviews with structured data collection?
- participants are asked to respond to specific questions
- -more interactive
what is generalizability?
if the finding can be represented by population
what is validity measures?
measure what is suppose to be measured
what is reliability of measures?
if someone else did study would results be similar
what is random sampling?
when random people are chosen for study
what are research ethics?
- protection from harm
- informed consent
what is debriefing?
explain what point of study is
what is a gamate?
one sex cell (sperm or egg)
what is a chromosome?
23 pairs of DNA contained in every cell in the body
what is meiosis?
process thru which gamates are formed
what is a zygote?
basic for of prenatal development going through mitosis
what is mitosis?
development of cells, the fetus growing
what is an autosome?
non sex cell/chromosomes
what is dizygotic (fraternal)
from two zygotes or eggs
what is monozygotic (identical)?
from one zygote or egg
what is a genotype?
specific genetic makeup of a individual
what is phenotype?
observable traits or characteristics
what are dominant genes?
what are recessive genes?
not expressed characteritics although part of genetics
what is incomplete dominance?
phenotype influenced primarly but not exclusively by dominant gene
the ___ chromosome pair determines male or female?
males are more vulnerable to _-linked recessive disorders?
x-linked inheritance effects who more?
what is pleiotropism?
single gene influences multiple phenotypic traits
what is polygenic inheritance?
multiple gene pairs that create one trait
for the x-linked chromosome abnormality in down sydrome where is the extra material added?
what is the life expectancy?
greater risk for who?
are chromosomal disorders passed from parent to child?
is there a relationship between maternal age and chromosomal disorders?
is there a relationship between fathers age and chromosomal disorders?
male chromosomal disorder
extra X or XXY
lower level of testaterone
male chromosomal disorder
extra Y or XYY
increased amount of testosterone
female chromosomal disorder
extra X or XXX
female chromosomal disorder
lack a X or XO
what is heredity estimates?
how much individual differences in a trait is due to heredity
what is concordance rates?
- percentage that indicates degree of similarity in phenotype among pairs of family members
- ex. son to dad
- son to mom
what is passive correlation?
genes influencing phenotype
what is evocation correlation?
genes evocates change in enviroment
what is active correlation?
genetic makeup that fits with their phenotype
first cell division in __ to __ hours
12 - 24
what is conception?
rapid cell division while going down the fallopian tube
what is a blastocyst?
hollow ball of cells
early miscarriage is due to?
germinal period major development?
amnion, umbilical cord, placenta
skin, nervous system
lungs, digestive system, internal organs
major development in the embryonic period?
major organs begin to form, heartbeat on 18th day
major development in fetal period?
significant brain development
what does the fetus inhale/exhale during fetal period?
during fetal period oxygen comes from?
what is vernix?
cottage cheese substance that covers skin from amniotic fluid
what is lanugo?
thin hair provides warmth
when is movement felt by mother?
at 5 months what is the baby doing in the womb?
at 9 months what closes and reopens at 7 months?
what is the age of viability?
when fetus can survive out of the womb
fetus gains __ lbs in last trimester
what are prenatal beliefs impacted by?
generational wisdom of time
what are some prenatal beliefs?
- avoid wine
- some meats
- strong foods
what is current science driven prenatal method that is derived from traditional cultures?
current prenatal care can vary based on?
ethnicity and sociol economic status
developing world would less likely recieve what care?
what is the current prenatal focus on ?
diet, exercise and teratogens
two key vitamins in prenatal diet care?
iodine and iron
where is iodine a bigger issue?
what vitamin is necessary for a healthy pregnancy?
what type of physical activity is encourage when pregnant?
- non-aerobic (kegals)
what are teratogens?
anything that can harm developing fetus
examples of teratogens?
when is the baby most vulnerable to teratogens?
when can tetorgens affect the developing fetus and embryo?
rural nature of half of the worlds population impacts what?
childrens health could vary based on ____ or area of conception
maternal obesity is linked to ?
rubella exposure during embryonic stage can lead to what?
heart abnormalities and mental retardation
rubella exposure during the fetus stage can lead to what?
hearing problems and low birth weight
what three strategies can prevent AIDS transmission?
- effective medicines
- infant formula
what are the consequences of smoking while pregnant?
- low birth weight
what is fetal alcohol syndrome?
physical effects, flat face, mother drinking heavily during pregnancy
consequences of asprin?
low birth wt
consequences of illicet drugs?
- speech problems
conseqences of caffeine?
most vulnerable when?
- learning disabilities
- last trimester
what are the consequences of mercury and lead?
- cognitive defects
- still birth
effect of tratogen may depend on when what occurs?
what are other prenatal factors that have to do with the mother?
what are the three main causes of men infertility?
- too few sperm
- quality of sperm
- low motility
main cause of women infertility?
what were some historical infertility treatments?
- mutual orgasm
- surgery on woman
why is there an infertility belt in africa?
what is the cat in the hat study?
mother read to fetus for last trimester everyday
stages of birth?
- baby out
- placenta out
first stage: labor
contractions in the uterus cause ___ to dialate
what is the rule of thumb? 5-1-1
- 5 min apart
- last 1 min
- pattern contiue for 1 hour
second stage: delivery
mulitple pushes because of ______
third stage: expel placenta
complcations can occur from what?
placenta not come out
two common birth complications?
- failure to progress
- breech presentation
what can be done to dal with birth complications?
c-sections differ thru out countries why?
- tools avaiable
- doctors avaiable
culutures may have ______ traditions for mothers after birth
_______ also has meaning in some cultures
what do some cultures do with?
some cultures believe placenta has value for?
- bury it
- hormones and nutrients
______ and ________ support important
medical use of ______ in developed countries
____ ___ can help with pain
how is the placenta delivered
umbilical cord can be ___ & ____
- emotional and social
- birthing positions
- varies methods
- cut and tied
what is the apgar scale?
- scale that rates
what is anoxia?
lack of oxygen to the brain
what is prematurity?
born before 37 weeks after conception
what is the biggest complication with prematurity?
how does the baby ususally act when born premature
what is low birth wt?
what is the best predictor of infant survival ?
what is a postmature infant?
- 2 weeks past due date
- usually long in length and skinny in wt
what are we 41st in the world for infant mortality?
- more taratogens
- higher uninsured
numerous reflexes of infants due to _____
palmer grasp, moro and rooting disappear when?
what sense is the easiest to develop?
____ and ___ become well developed?
show smell preferences for ____ diet
prefer what taste?
prefers mothers ____
- taste and smell
- breast milk
hearing is sensative to what?
prefer what voice?
have problems with?
- human speech
- locating sound
what is the least developed?
binocular and color are ____
prefer _____ to random designs
prefer _____ to other patterns
what is a preference paradigm?
infants exposure to two faces look longer at familiar one
what is habituation-dishauituation?
constant exposure to pattern become bored, slight change become interested
what is intermodal perception?
combine multiple senses to percieve something
infant upset when sights and sounds are not _____
who do newborns imitate?
fussing cry is what?
anger cry is what?
large sound of air
pain crying is what?
crying can be classified as basic if no distintive ___ is noted
crying curve relates to ____ ______
when do babies cry the most
duration and intensity of crying _____ between cultures
what is swaddling?
- wrapping the babies arms and legs tight together