Simple behaviour needed for survival
Fixed Action Pattern
Inborn predisposition to behave in a certain way when appropriately stimulated. The term is used to describe a complex behaviour that is inherited by every individual member of a species
Some behaviours require the development of the body and the structures of the nervous system.
The process of moulding or forming new synapses
Refers to the way it changes in response to stimulation from the environment. Necessary for learning to take place and is present through a healthy person's lifetime
Process involved in developmental plasticity
- - The process whereby the unborn baby's cells that will become neurons divide and multiply
- - Newly formed neurons move outward to their destined location.
- Circuit Formation:
- - Occurs when the axons of new neurons grow out to target cells and form synapses with them
- Circuit Pruning:
- - Involves the elimination of excess neurons and synapses; that is, those which have not established a connection with a target cell die.
- - Process whereby the axons of the neurons in the child's brain become covered in myelin.
Periods in time which are particularly suited to learning things due to the nature of growing. Broken into two sub-categories:
- Experience-expectant learning - at a young age i.e. a young child learning to talk
- Experience-dependent learning - at any time during an individuals life after being a young child i.e. learning to read and write on the basis of knowing how to speak
Critical development - narrow periods of time providing opportunities for learning in an organisms life i.e. imprinting
Learning in which a previously neutral stimulus comes to elicit an involuntary reflexive response
Difference between the neutral stimulus and the conditioned stimulus
Neutral Stimulus - the name given to the conditioned stimulus before it becomes conditioned.
Conditioned Stimulus - the stimulus, which is neutral at the start of classical conditioning, it would not normally produve the unconditioned response, but eventually does so beacuse of its association with the unconditioned stimulus
When a response no longer occurs
The reappearance of an extinguished response after a rest period
When an organism responds to the conditioned stimulus but not to any stimulus which is similar to the conditioned stimulus
When an organism respons to the conditioned stimulus and to any stimulus which is similar to the unconditioned stimulus
One trial learning
One trial learning is a form of classical conditioning but it also has some aspects which distinguish it from classical conditioning
Similarities of One trial learning and Classical Conditioning
- Involves respondent conditioning where the body reacts phsyiologically
- It does not involve thinking or cognitive processes
- An association is made between the neutral stimulus and the unconditioned stimulus
Differences of one-trial learning and classical conditioning
- One trial learning only requires one pairing of NS and UCS while classical conditioning requires multiple trials
- One trial learning takes time to occurs while classical conditioning is learnt almost immediately
Explain Thorndike's puzzle box
A hungry cat was placed in a ‘puzzle box’ with a plate of food outside the box. The cat was keep to escape but the only way out of the box was to pull a string that opened the door.
After making random movements attempting to escape (trial and error learning), the cat eventually pulled the string and was rewarded with food.
Explain the three laws of trial and error learning
The Law of Effect - states that behaviour becomes controlled by its consequences - if it feels good we will do it again; if it feels bad we wont
The Law of Recency - states that the most recent response is the one with the greatest effect
The Law of Exercise - states that stimulus-response connections are strengthened through repetition
Trial and Error Learning
A type of learning where one response after another is tries and rejected until eventually a successful response is made
A type of learning where behaviour becomes controlled by its consequences
The Skinner Box
- The important characteristics of the Skinner box
- - A means of giving a signal
- (a light or buzzer)
- - A means of recording a
- response ( a bar, button, lever or touch pad)
- - A means of providing a
- reward (food) or punisher (mild electric shock)
- - A means of automatically
- recording that the response had been made (a cumulative recorder)
What is the difference between a negatice reinforcement and a punisher?
Punishment decreases the probability of the response occuring, while negative reinformcement increases the probability of a response occuring
What is the difference between positive and negative reinforcement?
Positive - a reward which strengthens a response by providing a pleasant or satisfying consequence
Negative - the removal, reduction, or prevention of an unpleasant stimulus
- A ‘token’ is something that has no value in itself. An ‘economy’ is a system of trade. A token economy is a form of behaviour modification in which tokens are earned for performing target behaviours and these tokens can be exchanged later for some reinforcer (reward) that is valued by the learner.
Where a person learns by watching the behaviour demonstrated by another, originally called social learning theory
Outline the four principles of observational learning
1. Learning occurs by observing the behaviours of others and the consequence of those behaviours
2. Learning can occur without there being an immediate change in behaviour - it can remain latent
3. Cognition plays a role because the learner has awareness and expectations of future reinforcements or punishments
4. Observational learning is a link between behaviourist theory of learning anf cognitive learning theories
Process of Obervational Learning
Attention - attention and focus must be paid to the model's behaviour and its consequences
Retention - The learnt behaviour must be stored in memory as a mental representation
Reproduction - The learner must have the physical and intellectual ability to convert these mental representations into actions
Motivation - The learner must want to imitate the learnt behaviour
Reinforcement - When there is the procpect of a positive result or consequence for imitatin the behaviour
Can be defined as a mental process in which a sudden, complete and unexpected solution to a problem is achieved.
Stages of Insight Learning
- Preparation -
- The person makes attempts to solve the problem
- Incubation -
- The person gives up and decides to do something else
- Insight -
- The 'Aha!' experience, when the person suddenly realises the solution
- Verification -
- The hard work of applying the solution and making sure it works
Refers to a situation in which learning has taken place but the behaviour has not yet been demonstrated