Quiz 1: Conditioning & Learning

  1. The term behavior refers to any activity of an organism that can be _________ or somehow _________, whereas the term learning refers to a relatively _________ change in what an organism does as a result of some type of __________.
    • a. observable
    • b. measured
    • c. permanent
    • d. experience
  2. In _______ conditioning, behaviors that the average person typically regards as (voluntary/involuntary) _________ come to be elicited in new situations.
    • a. classical
    • b. involuntary
  3. In _____ conditioning, a behavior produces some type of consequence that strengthens or weakens its occurrence. Such behaviors are typically those that are generally regarded as "______-directed" and which the average person often perceives as being "________" in nature.
    • a. operant
    • b. goal
    • c. voluntary
  4. Feeling anxious as you enter a dentist's office is an example of a behavior that has most likely been learned through _______ conditioning.
    a. operant
  5. Speaking with a loud voice in a noisy environment so that others will be able to hear you is an example of a behavior that has most likely been learned through ______ conditioning.
    a. operant
  6. According to the notational system to be used in this text, the term "A:B" means that event A (produces/is followed by) _______ event B, and the term "X-->Y" means that event X (produces/is followed by) ______ event Y.
    • a. is followed by
    • b. produces
  7. The nativist position, as exemplified by the Greek philospher ____ emphasizes the role of (learning/heredity) _______.
    • a. Plato
    • b. heredity
  8. The empiricist position, as exemplified by the Greek philopher ________ emphasizes the role of (learning/heredity) _______.
    • a. Aristotle
    • b. learning
  9. Nativist is to (nature/nurture) ____ as empiricist is to (nature/nurture) _______.
    • a. nature
    • b. nurture
  10. The law of _____ states that we associate events that are opposite to each other, whereas the law of _______ states that we associate events that occur in close proximity to each other.
    • a. contrast
    • b. contiguity
  11. According to the law of ______, we easily associate events that resemble each other. According to the law of ______, the more often two events occur together, the stronger the association.
    • a. similarity
    • b. frequency
  12. Animals that have fur, four legs, a tail, and can bark are quickly perceived as belonging to the same species. This is an example of the law of _____.
    a. similarity
  13. The act that the words full and empty are easily associated with each other is an example of the law of ______.
    a. contrast
  14. The more often one practices a particual move in wrestling, the more likely one is to perform that move in a real match. This is an example of the law of _____.
    a. frequency
  15. After once encountering a snake in her garage, Lisa is now quite nervous each time she is in the garage. This is an example of Aristotle's law of _____. This is also an example of (classical/operant) ____ conditioning.
    • a. contiguity
    • b. operant
  16. Descartes' dualistic model proposed that human behavior has two aspects: an _____ aspect that functions like a machine and a ______ aspect governed by ____ ____. By contrast, the behavior of animals was believed to be entirely _____.
    • a. involuntary
    • b. voluntary
    • c. free will
    • d. reflexive (involuntary)
  17. The British ___ such as John ___, maintained that knowledge was largely a function of ____ and that the mind of a newborn infant is a (in Latin) _____ ____ (which means ____ ___).
    • a. empiricists
    • b. Locke
    • c. experience
    • d. tabula rasa
    • e. blank slate
  18. They also believed that the mind is composed of a finite set of basic ____ that are then combined through the principles of ____ to form our consciuos experiences.
    • a. elements
    • b. association
  19. The (functionalist/structuralist) ____ approach proposed that the goal of psychology should be to identify the basic elements of the mind. The primary rearch method used for accomplishing this was the method of _____.
    • a. structuralist
    • b. introspection
  20. In contrast to the above, those who adopted the (functionalist/structuralist) _____ approach to psychology emphasized the adaptive processes of the mind and were thus very interested in the study of learning.
    a. functionalist
  21. The functionalist approach was strongly influenced by Darwin's theory of ____. As such, these psychologists viewed animal research as (relevant/irrelevant) _____ to the study of human behavior in that humans were assumed to have evolved in a (similar/dissimilar) _____ way to other animals.
    • a. evolution
    • b. relevant
    • c. similar
  22. The functionalists were similar to the structuralists in that tehy still emphasized the study of ____ experience and in doing so often used the method of ____.
    • a. conscious
    • b. introspection
  23. William James was a (functionalist/structualist) _____, and Edward Titchener was a ________.
    • a. functionalist
    • b. structuralist
  24. An ____ ____ is a trait that has evolved through ____ ____.
    • a. evoluntionary advantage
    • b. natural selection
  25. The three main components to the theory of natural selection are:
    • 1. traits vary within and between species.
    • 2. traits are inheritable.
    • 3. organisms must compete for limited resources.
  26. To say that a trait is ____ means that it has a genetic basis and can be inherited by offspring.
  27. The real driving force behind evolution is not survival of the fittest, but rather the ____ advantage held by those individuals who possess adaptive traits.
  28. It is simplistic to assume that one can draw a clear distinction between ___ and ___ because the way we learn is itself an ____ trait.
    • a. nurture
    • b. nature
    • c. inherited
  29. Watson noted that a major problem with the method of ___ was that the results obtained were often unreliable.
  30. A basic problem with relying on someone's report about his or her thoughts and feelings is that we are making an ____ that the report is accurate. This term is defined in the footnote as a supposition or guess based on logical ___ rather than direct ___.
    • a. assumption
    • b. deduction
    • c. observation
  31. The notion that the proper subject matter of psychology should be the study of consciousness was so strong that even those who studied ___ behavior felt compelled to make inferences about possible mental processes in their subjects.
  32. Watson argued that psychology needed to become a ___ science (like biology, chemistry, and physics) based solely on the study of directly ____ events.
    • a. natural
    • b. observable
  33. According to the law of ___ the (simple/complex) ____ explanation is generally the preferable explanation.
    • a. parsimony
    • b. simple
  34. One version of the above law, known as ___ ___, holds that it is preferable to interpret animal behavior in terms of lower, more primitive processes, such as reflex or habit, than higher, more mentalistic processes, such as reasoning.
    Morgan's cannon
  35. Watson's brand of behaviorism is often referred to as ___ behaviorism.
  36. According to this type of behaviorism, psychologists should study only those behaviors that can be ___ ___.
    directly observable
  37. Watson believed that all reference to ____ events should be eliminated from the study of behavior.
  38. Watson proposed a ___-___ theory of learning which hypothesizes that learning involves the formation of a direct connection between a ___ and a ____.
    • a. S-R
    • b. stimulus
    • c. response
  39. In his 1913 article on behaviorism, Watson emphasized the role of both ___ and ___ in the development of human behavior. In his later theorizing, however, he downplayed the role of ___.
    • a. heredity
    • b. environment
    • c. heredity
  40. In his later theorizing, Watson proposed that humans inherit (many/a few) ___ basic reflexes, along with three basic emotions: ___, ___, and ___.
    • a. few
    • b. love, fear, and rage
  41. Hull believed that it might be useful to incorporate internal events into one's theorizing so long as they can be ____ by defining them in such a way that they can be measured.
  42. In Hull's approach, the internal events he included were hypothetical ___ processes.
  43. Such internal events are called ___ variables in that they are presumed to ___ between the environment and behavior.
    • a. intervining
    • b. mediate
  44. Hull's theory was pure ___-___ theory in that it assumed thath the process of learning involves the creation of connections between specific ___ and specific ___.
    • a. S-R
    • b. stimulus
    • c. response
  45. Tolman's approach is known as ___ behaviorism because it utilizes mentalistic concepts, such as "expectations," to explain behavior. This approach is also sometimes called ___ behavior.
    • a. cognitive
    • b. purposive
  46. A ___ ___ is an internal representation of one's surroundings.
    cognitive map
  47. The experiment by Tolman and Honzik (1930) has traditionally been regarded as a demonstration of __ learning, in which learning appears to take place in the absence of any reward. The experiment has also been regarded as a demonstration of the distinction between learning and ____.
    • a. latent
    • b. performance
  48. Tolman believed that introspectively observed thoughts and feelings are (useless/useful) ___ in the antalysis of behavior. As well, almost all of Tolman's research was conducted using ___ as subjects.
    • a. useful
    • b. rats
  49. The modern-day study of cognitive processes in nonhuman animals is known as ___ ___ or ___ ___.
    • a. animal cognition
    • b. comparative cognition
  50. Bandura's ___ ___ theory emphasizes the importance of ___ learning and ____ variables.
    • a. social learning
    • b. observational
    • c. cognitive
  51. The concept of ___ ___ proposes that three variables: ____, ____, and ___ variables, all interact with each other.
    • a. reciprocal determinism
    • b. environment, behavior, and personal
  52. Bandrua's work has influenced the development of a type of therapy knwon as ___-___ therapy, in which an attempt is made to change behavior by altering both environmental and ___ factors.
    • a. cognitive-behavior
    • b. cognitive
  53. Skinner's ____ behaviorism emphasizes both internal and external behaviors as resulting from ___ influences.
    • a. radical
    • b. environmental
  54. Skinner views thoughts and feelings as ___ bheaviors that themselves need to be explained. These can also be called ___ behaviors.
    • a. private
    • b. covert
  55. In teaching children to label their thoughts and feelings, parents first have to make an ____ about what the child is feeling.
  56. In determining the relationship of thoughts and feelings to behavior, it is sometimes difficult to know if the internal event ___, ____, or occurs ___ to the behavior.
    • a. precede
    • b. follow
    • c. occurs parallel
  57. Yet another issue with respect to using internal events to explain behavior is that we (can/cannot) ___ directly change such events.
  58. Saying that you are feeling "happy" to explain why you are always smiling and laughing is, from Skinner's perspective, and example of using feelings as a ___ explanation for your behavior.
  59. Altering the environment so as to control our won behavior is referred to as ___ control. However, in Skinner's view, even this type of behavior is ultimately the result of some type of ___ influence.
    • a. counter
    • b. environmental
  60. Skinner is most similar to (Hull/Watson/Tolman) ___ in arguing that behavior is best viewed form a ___ perspective.
    • a. Tolman
    • b. molar
  61. For Skinner, and S-R interpretation can best be applied to behavior that is ___, and can be ___ conditioned. It cannot be applied to ____ behavior that is under the control of its ___ and has a more ___ quality about it.
    • a. reflexive
    • b. classical
    • c. operant
    • d. consequenes
    • e. flexible
  62. The Tolmanian rat runs through the maze because it ___ thath doing so will result in food; the Skinnerian rat runs through the maze because, in its __ ___, doing so resulted in food.
    • a. expects
    • b. past experience
  63. Although he emphasized the role of the environment, Skinner also believed that behavior was fundamentally the result of the interaction of ___ and the enicronment. He was in fact quite interested in evidence indicating ___ limitations on ___ conditioning.
    • a. genetics
    • b. genetic
    • c. operant
  64. Skinner believed that the processes of ___ and ___ conditioning were quite similar in that both involved the selection of what was beneficial from what was not beneficial.
    • a. evolution 
    • b. operant
  65. On a practical level, Skinner wwas (enthused/cautious) ___ about genetic explanations for behavior because he believed that such explanations tend to be (optimistic/pessimistic) ___ about the possibility of change.
    • a. cautious
    • b. pessimistic
  66. Skinner's philosophy of behaviorism (meaning the set of basic assumptions for how best to conduct a science of behavior is called ____ behaviorism.
  67. The science that grew out of that philosophy is called the ___ ____ of behavior, or more briefly, ___ ____.
    • a. experimental analysis
    • b. behavior analysis
  68. The technology that has grown out of that science is known as ___ ____ ____.
    applied behavior analysis
  69. Jordan once became terribly ill while visiting Chicago. As a result, whenever he visists Chicago, he thinks of the illness he suffered at that time. Among the four laws of association, this is best described as an example of the law of ___.
  70. Aristotle was a(n) ______, whereas Plato was a(n) _____.
    empiricist; nativist
  71. After Jasmine saw her sister talk back to the sassy kid next door, she herself did likewise. This is an example of _____ learning.
  72. "Great musicians are born, not made" is an example of the ____ perspective on behavior, and "practice makes perfect" is an example of the ____ perspective.
    nativist (or nature); empiricist (or nurture)
  73. Neal was recently stung by a wasp and is now quite fearful of wasps. This is best seen as an example of ___ conditioning.
  74. The defining characteristic of behaviorism, as originally proposed by Watson, is the emphasis on ___ behavior.
  75. When Anastasia once visited Vancouver, it rained every day for a month. As a result, whenever she is trapped in a rainstorm, it reminds her of her trip to Vancouver. Among the four laws of association, this is best describe as an example of the law of ____.
  76. In considering the process of dreaming, a researcher who followed the approach to psychology known as ____ would have been most concerned with understanding how dreaming facilitates our ability to adapt to the world around us.
    functionalism ("evolutionary psychology" would also be correct)
  77. When Tara saw the lush green lawn, it reminded her of just how dry the lawn had been the previous year. Among the four laws of association, his is best described as an example of the law of ____.
  78. After struggling unsuccessfully to completely eliminate his test anxiety, Andres finally accepts that there are some aspects of himself that he can control and some that he cannot. This conclusion is similar to that of the French philosopher ____ and his theory of ____ dualism.
    Descartes; mind-body
  79. "Babies know nothing," Kristie pronounced when her sister commented on how intelligent her new baby seemed to be. Kristie obviously believes that the mind of a newborn is a ___ slate (or, in Latin ___), a notion that was promoted by a group of philosophers known as the _____.
    blank; tabula rasa; British empiricists.
  80. In trying to understand her feelings for Juan, Alisha pays close attention to the sensations she feels each time she sees him. This is an example of the method of ___. This was a favorite method of research by psychologists who adhered to the approach known as ____.
    introspection; structuralism
  81. William James was a ____, and Titchener was a _____.
    functionalist; structuralist.
  82. Mandy found a five-dollar bill when she took out the trash one ay. As a result, she now often volunteers to take out the trash. This is an example of ____ conditioning.
  83. "My cat never gets lost. It's like she has a blueprint in her mind of the exact layout of the entire town." This statement fits best with (name the behaviorist) ______'s brand of bbehaviorism, known as ____.
    Tolman's; cognitive (or purposive) behaviorism
  84. Ava tells her friend Trish that she believes that her husband kept yawning during their anniversary dinner because he was subconsciously tryin to punish her for having become pregnant. Trish tells Ava to quit being paranoid and that he was probably just tired. Conway Lloyd Morgan would have leaned toward accepting (Ava/Trish) ____'s explanation as more likely correct.
  85. When Janelle first saw a video of the pop singer Britney Sears, she immediately thought back to an old video she had seen of Paula Abdul, because the two performers seemed to have a common style of performance. Among the four laws of association, this is best described as an example of the law of ____.
  86. Ally's therapist tels her that he doesn't care what she thinks and feels; he is concerned only about what she did and about the circumstances that affectd her behavior. This therapist's approach fits best with (name the behaviorist) ______'s brand of behaviorism, known as _____.
    Watson's; methodological behaviorism
  87. Descartes believed that the behavior of (animals/humans/both) is entirely reflexive.
  88. The law of ____ is the proposition that simpler explanations are usually prefferable explanations.
  89. Removing the television set from your room so you wont be distracted while studying each evening is an example of what Skinner called ____.
  90. When I haven't eaten for several hours, I feel a strong sense of hunder and therefore walk quickly as I head to the cafeteria. This statement fits best with ____'s brand of behaviorism, known as _____.
    Hull's; neoehaviorism
  91. Shira emphasizes environmental explanations for behavior and beieves that thoughts and feelings should be regarded as private behaviors that also need to be explained. As such, she is most likely a ____ behaviorist. To the extent that Shira also conducts research into basic principles of behavior, she can be called a(n) _____.
    radical; behavior analyst; applied behavior analyst
  92. Sal claims that the neglect he suffered as a child resulted in low self-esteem, which in turn resulted in his long history of criminal activity. His parole officer tells him that such an explanation is too simplistic, that it ignores the complex manner in which the various facets of life interact with each other, and that Sal needs to acknowledge that his own attitude played a role in creating  his difficulties. Among the theorists in this chapter, the one who would most appreciate this statement is ____, because it agrees with his concept of _____ determinism.
    Bandura; reciprocal
  93. Recall the opening vignette to the chapter where, after making love, one behaviorist comments, "That was fine for you, how was it for me?" This joke is most descriptive of whcih school of behaviorism?
    methodological behaviorism
  94. A middleman in a business transaction is analogous to what Tolman and Hull referred to as a(n) _____ variable.
    intervening variable
  95. Hull's theory is a _____ type of theory, whereas Tolman's theory is a ____ type.
    molecular; molar
  96. (Hull/Watson/Both)____ assumed that behavior consists of a long chain of specific stimulus-response connections. This approach is known as a(n) ____ theory of behavior.
    Both; S-R
  97. Deanna often gets lost when she drives around the city that she lives in. Tolman would say that she has a faulty ______.
    cognitive map
  98. John's therapist tells him that, although she cares about what he feels she is more interested in what he did and in the circumstances that afected both his behavior and his feelings. This therapist's approach fits best with ____'s brand of behaviorism, known as ____.
    Skinner's; radical behaviorism
  99. Although Roberta just sits there throughout the lecture, she can afterward repeat everything the professor said. This is an example of ___ learning and ____.
    latent; performance
  100. Learning is a relatively _____ change in behavior that results from some type of _____.
    permanent; experience
  101. As originally defined by Watson, behaviorism is a ____ approach to psychology that emphasizes the study of ___ influences on ___ behavior.
    natural science; environmental; observable
  102. Skinner's approach to the study of behavior is a (molar/molecular) ___ approach. In this sense, Skinner is quite similar to (Watson/Tolman/Hull)_____.
    molar; Tolman
  103. Lynne persists in teaching her daughter music despite the insistence of her husband that the child "was born tone deaf." Which of these two has an attitude most similar to that of a behaviorist?
  104. Learning how to swing a bat by watching others is an example of (observable/observational) ____ learning. Actually swinging the bat is an example of (observable/observational) ____ behavior.
    observational; observable
Card Set
Quiz 1: Conditioning & Learning
Quiz 1: Conditioning & Learning--Introduction