Microbiology & Immunology

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  1. Histamine
    • Released by:
    • -Mast cells in connective tissue
    • -Basophils in blood

    Increases vasodilation and permeability
  2. Prostaglandins
    Released by every organ of the body

    Intensifies the effects of histamine (increased vasodilation and permeability)
  3. Leukotrienes
    Released  by mast cells and basophils

    Increases permeability

    Also, functions in adherence of phagocytes to pathogens
  4. Cytokines
    • Releases by:
    • -Monocytes, macrophages
    • -Lymphocytes
    • -etc

    • Regulates inflammatory response
    • Attracts leukocytes
    • Initiates fever
  5. Complement
    Increases vasodilation and permeability

    • Stimulates histamine release
    • Attracts neutrophils
    • Promotes phagocytosis
  6. Antigen
    any substance recognized by the immune system

    Classes-lipids, proteins, carbohydrates, and nucleic acids
  7. Immunogen
    any substance that can evoke an immune response
  8. Toll-like receptors
    Receptors on the surface of immune cells

    -Bind to antigens found on various pathogens
  9. Innate Immunity:  First Line of Defense
    • Mechanical & Chemical Barriers
    • --limit the entry, spread, and replication
  10. Innate Immunity:  Second Line of Defense
    • 1.  Phagocytosis
    • 2.  Inflammation
    • 3.  Fever
    • 4.  Complement system (alternate pathway)
    • 5.  Biological Response Modifiers (BRMs)
  11. Neutrophils
    • -short-lived
    • -ingest, kill, and digest microbial pathogens
    • -first to inflammatory sites
    • -granules contain antimicrobial agents such as        lysozymes and lactoferin (iron chelator)
    • -dying neutrophils contribute to the formation   of pus
  12. Eosinophils
    mediate allergic reactions and defense against parasites (more simply, worms-helminthes)
  13. Basophils
    • -Mast cells are tissue counterpart
    • •produce cytokines in defense against parasites
    • •responsible for allergic reaction
    • •secrete primary (e.g., histamines) and secondary mediators (e.g.,prostaglandins & leukotrienes)
  14. Monocytes
    -Macrophages are tissue counterpart

    • •phagocytosis and intracellular killing
    • •antigen presentation to T-cells
    • •recruit other immune cells through cytokine production
    • •Specialized macrophages: a) Kupffer cells (Liver), Glial cells (Brain), Langerhans cells (Skin), Osteoclasts (Bone), alveolar macrophages (lungs)
  15. Dendritic cells
    • •differentiated macrophages that act as APCs to activate helper T-cells, B-cells, Cytotoxic T-cells.
    • •In most organs; strategically located in mucosal tissue
    • •Regulate innate and adaptive response.
Card Set
Microbiology & Immunology
Innate & Adaptive Response, complement system
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