A man that has been surgically castrated before puberty.
In church/opera women were not allowed to sing but they still wanted the high parts of the songs --> men with high voices but vocal strength.
Were perceived as sexual icons. Very common in Baroque era.
Musical setting of the story from the Gospels of the death and resurrection of Jesus.
- Genre of the Baroque.
- Like an opera but it was sacred and unstaged.
- WIth no staging came a larger role for the chorus to tell the plot.
Writes words that are used in opera. Basically writes a play to be set to music.
This new instrument is from the Classical era and allowed you to play both soft and loud dynamics on the same instrument. (improvement from harpsichord)
Roles of men that are designed to be played by women. (a woman plays a young boy's character)
Instrumental Music that is designed to tell a story
Time of scientific objectivity, social justice. An emphasis on human needs/reason and clarity.
Musical Manifestations: Music became much more clear/singable/accessible. The rise of the public concert (less aristocratic based). Music appealed to the broad public.
A monody in opera (a solo voice on top of basso continuo). It makes opera possible because it is more lifelike, can provide plain information (the plot), and allows for expressive dissonances.
Recitative Simple v. Recitative Accompagnato
- Simple: Sing in a speech like way over a solo basso continuo.
- Accompagnato: Sing in a speech like way over an entire orchestra (for special effect)
Recitative v. Aria
- Recitative: speech like, for the plot
- Aria: rhythmic, about feelings, can tap your feet to it
A musical snipet comes back again and again and again.
Snipet - Contrast - Snipet - Contrast - etc.
Contrast between a soloist/group of soloists and a large ensemble. Common in Baroque era.
- Chamber work for instruments.
- 2 violins that are the primary instruments and a basso continuo (low base line + keyboard instrument to fill in the harmonies)
- 4 people are playing
A common musical form from the 18th century. Exposition/Introduction --> Development --> Recapitulation/Conclusion
Development - take themes from the intro and conclusion and play around with them
Improvisatory/Free sounding music
strict, learned, carefully planned out polyphonic composition that uses a theme that occurs in all of the voices
The Baroque Sound vs. Classical Sound
Baroque: mishapen pearl - a tacky decadence, complexity, ornamentation, rich-decadent music. Interest in emotion, experimentation, excitement. Established patterns and forms.
Classical: Enlightenment --> music becomes more clear/accessible/understandable (much less complex). Balance and proportion.
Any piece that has words (vocals)
Any piece of music. A song is a special kind of piece.
Lorenzo da Ponte
- The Librettist of W.A. Mozart (his favorite).
- Wrote the words to be used in an opera (the play part of it to be set to music by Mozart)
- Baroque Musician
- Very hardworking - self borrower to save time
- Wrote music for church environments. St. Matthews Passion
- Prelude and Fugue in E. Minor
- Enjoyed fame/travel. Was cosmopolitan and ended up in London. Liked to write Italian Operas. Wrote simple, tuneful, attractive music.
- The Messiah
W. A. Mozart
- Classical Musician
- Started working as a freelance artist
- Da Ponte Librettist
- Music was a combination of profound but accessible.
Prelude and Fugue in E Minor
- J.S. Bach - from Baroque era.
- Was intended for the church organ but it was not sacred.
- Prelude: improvisatory
- Fugue: strict, learned, carefully worked out
St. Matthew Passion
- J.S. Bach -Baroque Era
- Passion: musical setting of the story from the Gospels of the death/resurrection of Jesus.
- 2 Distinct musical characters (Jesus - recitative accompagnito - for a special effect) (Evangelist/Narrator - recitative simple)
- A fusion of expressiveness and seriousness
Corelli - La Folia
- From the Baroque era.
- Repeating basso continuo
- A violin soloist plays the melody and plays variations over and over again.
- Able to show technical capabilities of the violin.
- Baroque Era. Is a Christmas song.
- Oratorio: opera like but sacred and not staged
- Recitative vs. Aria
- Was an opera from the Baroque era.
- Shows the different functions of recitative simple and accompagnito.
- Demonstrates that men sang in very high voices during the Baroque era -- Castrati
W. A. Mozart, Marriage of Figaro
- It was based on a play written by Beaumarchais that was about social hierarchies (and social tension).
- Cherubino - Trouser Role
- Ensemble Finale - All characters come onto the stage, a lot of action is going on
Vivaldi, La Primavera from the Four Seasons
- Was a concerto from the Baroque era. Movements included a smaller part that was self contained but a part of the larger piece.
- Used Ritornello form (snipet, contrast, snipet, contrast, etc.)
Instrumental Music During the Baroque Period
- Instrumental music and opera-like music became very famous during the Baroque.
- Concertos, Sonatas, Dance Suites
- Became popular because there were more instrument makers so the instruments technical capabilities increased. A lot of people started becoming famous as instrumental players (some composers became known as instrumental composers to)
- More Virtuosic music.
Point of Watching Farinelli in Class
Showed the elaborate works of the Baroque era and the vocal productions they put on. It was a story about a castrato and how women loved him. He was very famous and caused women to faint/cry in the audience.
Shows a striking difference with Beethoven's music. Treated like a servant (worked for Esterhazy). Did a lot of musical jokes! String Quartet, Farewell Symphony, Farewell Symphony.
Lively and genial music.
Grew up when Haydn, Mozart were composing (huge musical changes occurring). Made everything bigger, dramatic/heroic story, taps into human values (our consciousness). Was very inventive (made all the standardized forms his own).
Beethoven 5th Sympony
- Unity - a part shows up in every piece
- Weird opening, weird theme and variation, used a scherzo and trio instead of a minuet and trio. Put in a seque between 3rd and 4th movement so there is no pause. Added instruments to the orchestra
Beethoven 6th Symphony
Program Music - made the instrumentation tell a story- rapid shifts in dynamics
Beethoven's 9th Symphony
Use of words/singers in symphonies. Takes Schiller's text but adds text of his own.
Scott Burnham introduction
Beethoven's heroic style encodes for real life experiences. There is a human element/experience in his music. It was the embodiment of music - how music ought to be.
W.A. Mozart - Piano Concerto no. 21 movement 2
Shows the contrast between the large ensemble and soloist (concerto).