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  1. Hypothesis
    Explanation formulated to answer the questions being investigated
  2. Scientific argument steps
    • 1. Problem identification
    • 2. Question asking
    • 3. Hypothesis development
    • 4. Data collection and experimentation
    • 5. Analysis
    • 6. Conclusion
  3. Data collection steps
    • 1. Observation
    • 2. Measurement
    • 3. Samples
    • 4. Organization
  4. Deductive reasoning
    • Method whereby conclusions follow from general principles.
    • 1. All men are moral
    • 2. Mike is a man.

    Therefore, Mike is mortal.
  5. Inductive reasoning
    • Method of arriving at general principles from specific facts.
    • 1. I observed the sun set this evening.
    • 2. I have observed the Sun set daily, hundreds of times in my lifetime. 
    • Conclude: Sun must set every day.
  6. Hierarchy of body
    • Organism,
    • organ systems,
    • organs, tissues,
    • cells,
    • molecules,
    • atoms
  7. Stomach lining cells release
    Protease, HCl, intrinsic factor (B12)
  8. Duodenum releases
    Secretin and CCK
  9. Secretin triggers
  10. CCK triggers
    Gallbladder to release bile, decreases motility and acid production of stomach
  11. Sensory-somatic nervous system
    12 pairs of cranial nerves and 31 pairs of spinal nerves and ganglia
  12. Diaphragm does what for inspiration
  13. Mitral valve
    Between left atrium and ventricle
  14. Tricuspid valve
    Between right atrium and ventricle
  15. Blood flow
    • Vena cava,
    • right atrium,
    • tricuspid, right ventricle,
    • pulmonary valve,
    • pulmonary artery,
    • lungs,
    • pulmonary vein,
    • left atrium,
    • mitral valve,
    • left ventricle,
    • aortic valve,
    • aorta
  16. Dorsal body cavity
    Cranial cavity and spinal column
  17. Ventral body cavity
    Thoracic - diaphragm - abdominal and pelvic cavities
  18. Vitamin D
    Made by integumentary system and activated by urinary system
  19. Transverse section
    Aka cross section.  Cut made along horizontal plane to divide the body into upper and lower regions
  20. Frontal section
    Aka Coronal section. Cut made along a longitudinal plane that divides the body into front and back regions
  21. Sagittal section
    Cut made along a longitudinal plane dividing the body into right and left parts
  22. Functions of human body
    Adaptation, circulation, elimination, locomotion, nutrition, oxygenations, regulation, self-duplication
  23. Sympathetic nerves
    Active when a person is excited or scared
  24. Parasympathetic nerves
    Active when person is eating or at rest
  25. Effectors
    Motor function carries electrical impulses from CNS to effectors: glands and muscles
  26. Perforins released by
    NK, natural killer, cells to lyse
  27. Interferons
    Response to viral infection and prevents replication of the virus after 7-10 days
  28. CAM: cellular adhesion molecules
    Guide WBCs to site of damage or infection
  29. B cells
    Type of lymphocytes or small leukocytes.
  30. Crude birth rate
    Number of births per 1,000 people per year
  31. Crude death rate
    Number of deaths per 1,000 people per year.
  32. Genes
    Stretches of DNA on a chromosome that provide information for an organism’s characteristics
  33. Alleles
    Form of a gene
  34. Nucleotide structure
    Pentose sugar, phosphate group backbone to link bases, nitrogenous base
  35. Nitrogenous bases
    Adenine, cytosine, guanine plus thymine (DNA) or uracil (RNA)
  36. Purines
    Two rings.  Adenine and Guanine
  37. Pyrimidines
    One ring. Thymine/Uracil and cytosine
  38. Transcription
    Copy instructions from DNA into RNA and send messenger RNA to ribosomes
  39. Translation
    Protein production from messenger RNA
  40. Bacteria
    Prokaryotic: Eubacteria and Arhaebacteria.  Can exist independently of other cells
  41. Bacteria components
    Cell wall, cytoplasm, organelles, nucleoid of condensed DNA, plasmids, ribosomes.  Some have flagella.
  42. Eukarya
    Plasma membrane, cytoplasm, ribosomes, ER, Golgi apparatus, vesicles, vacuole, mitochondria, microtubules with centrosomes, nucleus containing nucleolus.  Sometimes flagella or cilia.
  43. Peroxisome
    Contained in vacuoles.  Major site of oxygen use and energy production.  Lots in liver.
  44. Cristae (crista sing.)
    Folds in membrane of mitochondria where enzymes are found that help convert sugar into ATP
  45. Microtubules
    Cellular tracks that, during mitosis, form the mitotic spindle.  Helps organize and segregate chromosomes during cell division.
  46. Centrosomes
    Microtubule-organizing centers that help form and organize the mitotic spindle during mitosis.
  47. Nucleolus
    Small body within nucleus and functions to produce ribosomes that get moved to the cytoplasm to make cell protein.
  48. Vacuoles in plants
    Large and contain water.  Used to maintain proper cell pressure.
  49. Gastrulation
    Most critical stage of development when individual tissue layers begin to form in the zygote.
  50. Stem cell types
    Totipotent, pluripotent, and multipotent.  Stem cells divide and remain undifferentiated.
  51. Phase of interphase
    G1, S phase synthesis, G2; followed y mitosis.  Gap phases: DNA available for transcription into RNA
  52. G1 phase
    DNA double helix unwinds.  Gene copied into complementary messenger RNA.  Helix closes. mRNA exits nucleus
  53. S phase
    DNA unwinds; DNA polymerase makes new DNA strands.
  54. G2 phase
    Protein synthesis and cell growth in preparation for cell division
  55. Homologous chromosomes
    Twin chromosome that is almost identical in size function and genes.
  56. Chromatids
    Chromosomes duplicate during S phase and condense into chromosomes that attach at one spot.
  57. Mitosis phases
    Prophase, metaphase, anaphase/telophase
  58. Meiosis phases
    Meiosis I/prophase I, metaphase I, anaphase I/telophase I, meiosis II
  59. Cytokinesis
    Separate two sets of chromosomes into different ells.
  60. Prophase
    Mitosis: spindle fibers form and the centrioles move to opposite sides of the cell.  Nuclear membrane disappears.
  61. Metaphase
    Mitosis: chromosomes align midway along the spindle fibers
  62. Anaphase
    Mitosis: chromosomes begin to separate from their daughters.  Cytokinesis begins.
  63. Telophase
    Mitosis: identical sets of chromosomes are at opposite ends of cell. Spindle fibers disappear, nuclear membranes reappear, and cytokinesis completes.
  64. Prophase I
    Meiosis: Homologous chromosomes condense and link in the process, forming tetrads.  Allows crossing-over or recombination.
  65. Metaphase I
    Meiosis: homologous chromosomes move to the metaphase plate
  66. Anaphase I
    Meiosis: homologous chromosomes separate but sister chromatids stay together
  67. Telophase I
    Meiosis: Cytokinesis has occurred and two haploid daughter cells result.
  68. Prophase II
    Meiosis: spindle fibers reappear and centrioles move to opposite poles.
  69. Anaphase II
    Sister chromatids separate again.
  70. Telophase II
    Four haploid cells result after cytokinesis.
  71. Mismatch repair
    Scans over DNA for mismatches in bases.  Repairs by removing incorrect base.
  72. Excision repair
    Cut defective strand of DNA and allow DNA polymerase to generate a new, correct piece of DNA.
  73. Germ cells
    Reproductive cells that give rise to sperm and ovum.
  74. Law of Dominance
    If two parents are pure for contrasting traits, all offspring will show dominant trait and be heterozygous.
  75. Incomplete Dominance
    Dominant and recessive genotypes interact to produce and intermediate phenotype.  Heterozygous sickle cell will have mild case of disease.
  76. Blood pressure
    Systolic over diastolic.  Pressure when heart contracts over pressure when hear is relaxed.
  77. What are the 6 synovial joint classifications?
    Gliding, hinge, pivot, ellipsoidal, saddle, ball & socket
  78. Gliding joint description
    Linear movement.  Ex: sternum & clavicle, tarsals, ribs & vertebrae at demi-facets, carpals
  79. Hinge joint description
    Flexion/extension/hyperextension movement. Ex knee, elbow
  80. Pivot joint description
    Medial/lateral movement. Ex. Axis & Atlas, Radius & Ulna
  81. Ellipsoïdal(Condylar) joint
    Rounded surface articulate with a depression.  Movements: flexion/extension, abduction/adduction, circumduction. Ex. Radius & carpals, Proximal phalanges & metacarpals, Scaphoid & lunate, occipital condyles
  82. Saddle joint
    Saddle-shaped joint.  Movements: flex, add/abd, circumduction, opposition. Ex., metacarpals & carpal (Pollex) to make the opposable thumb.
  83. Ball & Socket joint
    Round surface articulates with a depression. Movements: flexion/extension, abduction/adduction, circumduction, rotation. Ex. glenohumeral shoulder joint, hip
  84. Prostaglandins
    Made in renal medulla, cannot constrict blood vessels
  85. Nephron
    Functional unit of the kidney
  86. Lewis acid
    Electron pair receptor
  87. Kinetic energy computation
    KE = ½ mv2= ½  mass velocity2
  88. Potential energy computation
    PE = mgh = mass * std. gravity constant * height. G = 10m/s2
  89. Vaporization formula
    Heat = Mass * Latent heat
  90. Convert Kelvin to Centigrade
    C = K + 273
  91. Convert Centrigrade to Fahrenheit
    F = (1.8*C)+32 
  92. Convert Fahrenheit to Centigrade
    C = (F-32)/1.8
  93. Boyle’s Law
    P1V1 = P2V2
  94. Ideal gas law
    PV =KnT or PV =RnT (Pressure Volume n-amt of substance (moles) Temperature R=ideal gas constant
  95. Charles’s Law
    At constant pressure, the volume of a given mass of an ideal gas increases or decrease by the same factor as its temperature (i.e. gas expands as temperature increases) 
  96. Boyle’s Law
    Product of pressure and volume is a constant for a given mass of confined gas as long as the temperature is constant. pV=K
  97. Molarity (M)
    Moles of solute per liters of solution
  98. Moles
    Molecular weight in grams /weight in grams of one mole which is computed by adding atomic weight of elements in compound.
  99. Diffusion rate
    D=KT/vr where K=6.67x10-19, T is temperature in Kelvin, v is viscosity and R is radius of a molecule of solute
  100. Electromagnetic wave spectrum bands of wavelengths, short to long
    Gamma ray, x-ray, ultraviolet, visible, infrared, microwave and radio waves.  Long to short: Rabbits (radio waves) Mate (microwaves) In (infra-red) Very (visible) Unusual (unltraviolet) eXpensive (X-rays) Gardens (gamma rays).
  101. Visible light spectrum, long to short
    Roy G. Biv.or Richard of York Gave Battle InVain Red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo, violet
  102. Primary color of light
    RBG red blue green, not yellow
  103. Newton’s laws of motion
    • First law of motion: An object at rest will remain at rest, and an object in motion will remain in motion, at a constant velocity unless or until outside forces act upon it (inertia). 
    • Second law of motion: The net force acting upon an object is a product of its mass multiplied by its acceleration. 
    • Third law of motion: When one object exerts a force on another, the second object exerts on the first a force equal in magnitude but opposite in direction.
  104. Momentum
    • Object in motion. p=mv.
    • Object can have a lot of momentum because of large mass or a high velocity
  105. Joule
    Measurement of energy
  106. Watt
    Measurement of energy over time.  J/s Joules/sec.
  107. Ampere
    Unit of charge
  108. Coulomb’s law
    Inverse-square law of physics re electrostatic interaction between electrically charged particles.
  109. Newton
    Unit of force
  110. Kinetic energy
    Amount of energy associated with an object’s motion
  111. Law of Conservation of Energy
    Energy is not lost but rather transformed back/forth from KE and PE
  112. Catalysts increase rate of a chemical reaction
    By lowering the activation energy
  113. Original Designer of periodic table
    Gregory Mendeleev in the 1800’s
  114. Designer of modern periodic table
    Henry Moseley in the early 1900’s
  115. S subshell has how many electrons
  116. P subshell has how many electrons
  117. Valence electrons
    Electrons in the outermost shell of an atom
  118. Ionization energy, ionization potential
    Energy required to completely remove an electron from a gaseous atom or ion.  Increases moving from left to right across a period (decreasing atomic radii)
  119. Electronegativity
    Measure of an atom’s attraction on electrons in a chemical bond.  Low ionization → low electronegativity.
  120. Metals
    Elements that donate highly conductive electrons to their environment.  Cool and heat faster than non-metals.
  121. Alkali family
    First column – may donate one electron
  122. Alkali earth family
    Second column – may donate two electrons
  123. Halogens
    Seventh column - May accept one electron
  124. Noble gasses
    Electronically stable, resist bonding
  125. Elements recognized as liquids
    Mercury and bromine
  126. Elements recognized as gases
    10 on the right ***
  127. As atomic radii increases, electronegativity
  128. Metalloids
    Next to stairstep on periodic table, between metals and non-metals.  Most found in groups 14, 15 16. Accept or donate electrons readily.
  129. Globular proteins
    Water soluble proteins
  130. pH calculated by
    Activity (aH) of hydrogen ions. pH = -log (aH)
  131. pH  below 1
    Battery acid
  132. pH ~2
    Gastric juice
  133. 3 < pH < 4
    Orange juice
  134. pH ~6.5
  135. Blood pH
    7.34 to 7.45
  136. Activity of H+ in solution is 1part per thousand.  What is the pH
    pH = 3 which is pH = -log (1 x 10-3)
  137. pH indicator
    Qualitatively determines pH.  Litmus paper: red for acidic, blue for basic.
  138. Alkanes
    Saturated hydrocarbons – single bonds and C is completely connected with H.  CnH2n+2 
  139. Unsaturated hydrocarbons
    Have one or more double or triple bonds between carbon atoms: alkenes and alkynes
  140. Alkenes
    Unsaturated hydrocarbon with one double bond CnH2n
  141. Alkynes
    Unsaturated hydrocarbon with a triple bond CnH2n-2
  142. Isomer
    Given formula with two or more molecular structures.
  143. Common saturated hydrocarbon with 4 C
  144. Common unsaturated hydrocarbon with 5 C
  145. Metallic bonding
    Identical atoms within a metal share electrons so readily that metallic bonding results in the treatment of that metal as one large molecule
  146. Metallic ions tend to be
    Cations, positive
  147. Lewis structure
    Aka Lewis dot diagram provide visual representations of covalent bonding between atoms of a molecule. Na:Cl: with double dots above and below the C
  148. Oxidation
    Electron donation to produce a more positive ion
  149. Reduction
    Electron acceptance to produce a more negative ion
  150. Cellular metabolism oxidation reduction
    Oxidize glucose to CO2 and reduce oxygen to water.  C6H12)6 + 6O2 → 6CO2 + 6H2O
  151. Acid and base reaction produces
    Water and salts which neutralizes the pH.  Example: sodium hydroxide base NaOH combines with sulfuric acid (H2SO4) to for water and a sodium sulfate salt Na2SO4
  152. Oxidation reduction reaction examples
    Combustion, photosynthesis
  153. Water’s maximum density temperature
    4 degrees C with a standard value of 1g/mL.  Therefore, ice is less dense than liquid water.
  154. Kelvin scale absolute zero
    -273degrees C
  155. Triple point of water
    Temperature and pressure at which water will coexist as solid, liquid and gas. 273.16 K = 0.01 C
  156. Specific heat
    Energy required to raise one unit of mass of a substance by 1 degree C.  Water has second highest specific heat (after ammonia), → minor temperature changes compared to the environment.
  157. Heat of vaporization
    Amount of heat necessary to cause a phase transition between a liquid and gas.
  158. Phase transition
    Alteration of the physical state between a solid, liquid and a gas
  159. Latent heat
    Energy needed to cause a phase transition at a fixed temperature.  More needed to change from liquid to a gas than from liquid to a solid.
  160. Convert Kelvin to Celsius
    Add 273
  161. Heat
    Flow of energy due to a difference in temperature
  162. Liquid to gas transition
    Evaporation or vaporization requires addition of heat
  163. Gas to liquid transition
    Condensation requires subtraction of heat
  164. Evaporation achieved by
    High heat, low humidity, and fast movement of surrounding air
  165. Vaporization
    Phase transition liquid to gas by breaking physical bonds.  Heat necessary depends upon mass and latent heat
  166. Gas diffusion
    If gas A has 4 times the molar mass of gas B, it should diffuse thru a plug at ½ the rate of gas B.
  167. Condensation
    Phase transition from gas
  168. Albert Michelson
    First American to win a Nobel Prize.  Measured speed of light.
  169. Layers of atmosphere (inner to outer)
    Troposphere, Stratosphere, Mesosphere, Thermosphere, Exosphere, The Strong Man’s Triceps Explode.
  170. Igneous rock
    Created thru cooling and solidification of magma or lava. basalt, gabbro, dunite, granite, rhyolite.
  171. Sedimentary rock
    Formed by deposition of material at the Earth’s surface and within bodies of water.  sandstone,  conglomerates, breccias, mudrocks
  172. Metamorphic rock
    Rock transformed by profound physical and/or chemical change. Marble.
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