BIO Ch 1,2,16 Lecture

  1. Synthetic microbe
    Craig Venter

    inserted a man-made genome into an empty shell of dead single-celled microbe to see whether a creature can be built that will grow, eat and reporduce like those in nature

    -generate H_2 fuel?
  2. Microbes leading to genetic engenieering and biotechnology
    • 1. metablosim and genetic properties of microbes similar to plants and animals
    • 2. microorganisms suitable for industrial applications: easy to culture and grow rapidly
  3. Haemophilus influenzae
    • 1995
    • -microbal genome (firsat cellular genome)
    • -sequenced by Hamilton O. Smith and J. Craig Venter
  4. Genetech
    • 1982
    • -began mass production of the world's first genetically engineered product: human insulin
  5. Stanley Cohen & Herbert Boyer
    • inserted an amphibian gene into a bacterial DNA
    • -initiated the age of genetic engineering and modern biotechnology

  6. Alexander Fleming
    accidentially discovered first antibiotic: penicillin

    bioreactors: grow large amount of microbes

    WWII era
  7. Louis Pasteur
    • 1st to develop vaccines-rabbies
    • -described basis for fermentation
    • -developed pasterization
    • -defeated idea of spontaneous generation of microbes
  8. Koch's postulates
    • 1. suspected pathogenic organism should be present in diseased and not healthy
    • 2. suspect organism should be grown in pure culture
    • 3. cells from pure culture of suspected organism should cause diseas in healthy animal
    • 4. organism should be reisolated and shown to be the same as the original
  9. Robert Koch
    • -proved microorganisms cause disease
    • -created first "pure culture"
    • -created staining techniques
    • -discovered tuberculosis bacterium
  10. Ignaz Semmelweis
    discovered hand washing greatly improved mortality rate in hospitals
  11. Antoni van Leeuwenhoek
    • -discovered "microbal world"
    • -reported observations in a series of letters to the Royal Society of London
    • -made magnifying lenses
  12. H2 production
    microbes produce H2 from inorganic materials in reactions catalyzed by hydrogenase or nitrogenase enzymes
  13. bioremediation
    the application of organisms to remove pollutants from air, water, and soil
  14. N2 fixation
    all like on earth depends on N2 fixation-done by microbes
  15. Microbes
    majority of living forms are microbes

    ie. bacteria, virusesm archae, some fungi, protozoa, slime molds, and some algae
  16. Grypania spiralis
    • -one of the earliest eukaryotes
    • -found in 2.1 billion year old iron formation
  17. Cyanobacteria (aka blu-green algae)
    • -cyan: greek for dark blue
    • -proved most important in the evolution of life
    • -their oxygen evolving and carbon dioxide consuming photosynthesis comprises two photosystems that generate reductants from water in mechanisms similar to those of eukaryotic plant cells
  18. Precambrian Era
    • -time where the oldest fossil organisms were found
    • -3.5 billion yrs old
    • -first cells were prokaryotic, anerobic, and hetertrophic
  19. RNA catalysts

    RNA is autocatalytic, in prebiotic world before enzymes or DNA, RNA molecules may have been fully capable of self replication
  20. Protobionts (coacervate or microspheres)
    -protobionts could have formed spontaneously from abiotically produced organic compounds
  21. liposomes
    abiotically produced organic compunds

    -form when lipids are included n mix
  22. Miller and Urey experiment
    • 1953
    • created in the lab the conditions of early earth atmosphere
  23. Oparin-Haldane hypothesis
    • -early earth atmosphere very low in oxygen and high in hydrogen, ammonia and methane
    • -would have enhanced the joining of simple molecules
    • -energy for reactions was provided by lightning and UV radiation
    • -abiotic synthesis of biological molecules
  24. First microbes
    3.5 billion yrs ago

    -science seeks natural casues for natural phenomena
  25. Deep time
    ration 3.8 secons/24hrs+ human arrival on earth
  26. 2 main microbes
    • prokayotic and eukaryotic
    • karyotic refers to nucleus
Card Set
BIO Ch 1,2,16 Lecture
Section 1