day 2

  1. Naturalistic observation
    involves observing the natural flow of behavior in a natural setting

    -no involvement
  2. 4 characteristics of observational research
    • -noninterference
    • -emphasis on overall patterns
    • -most useful when we know little of the phenomenon of interest
    • -unable to shed light on casual relationships
  3. limits of observational research (4)
    -certain kinds of behavior are difficult to observe, because they occur rarely or in private

    -it is confined to one particular group of people, one setting, one activity

    -limited ability to test hypothesis or theories

    -potential for bias
  4. Single subject experiment overview
    -studying a single indvidual or very small unique group of people

    • -sometimes involves intervention by researcher to strucutre setting and observations
    • *asking question
    • *setting up situations or tasks
  5. 3 types of correlational research
    • -Positive relationship
    • -negative relationship
    • -no relationship
  6. (3 types of correlational research) Positive relationship
    an increase in one variable is associated with an increase in the other

    ex) increase of weather increase in violence

    positive slope
  7. (3 types of correlational research) negative relationship
    increase in one variable while the other decreases

    negative slope
  8. (3 types of correlational research) No relationship
    an increase of one variable is not associated with an increase or decrease in the other

    straight slope
  9. Overview of Correlational research (2)
    • -measuring the direction and strength of a relationship between variables
    • *must be 2 variables
    • * variables must be measured consistently

    -established relationships can be used to predict future events
  10. Advantages of correlational research
    -can study problems where it is difficult or unethical to manipulate variables

  11. disadvantages of correlational research
    correlation does not equal causation

    3 possible causation

    X caused Y, Y caused X, or 3rd variable caused both
  12. overview of quasi-experimental research
    -concerned with evaluating differences between existing groups
  13. experimental research
    • -comparing two or more conditions
    • * participants are randomly assigned
    • *allow causal inferences to be made

    - trying to find out if a variable is causally related to another variable
  14. independent variable
    cause and the thing that is manipulated
  15. dependent variable
    effect and the thing that is measured 
  16. Experimental group
    participant group that receives treatment, intervention, etc.
  17. COntrol group
    participant group that is like experimental group in all respects except for the treatment
  18. random assignment
    participants have an equal likelihood of being assing to our experimental and control groups
  19. Advantages of experimental research
    -can draw causal conclusions

    -allows us to test specific hypothesis
  20. Disadvantages of experimental method
    hard to generalize to larger population

    -not all hypothesis of interest can be tested in lab
Card Set
day 2
day 2