1. Scientific approach to  behavior
    assumes that events are governed by some lawful order
  2. Goals in research
    measurement & description, understanding & prediction, application & control
  3. measurement & Description
    • first goal of psychology
    • develops measurement techniques that make it possible to describe behavior
  4. Understanding & Prediction
    • higher goal
    • understanding
    • hypothesis and variables
  5. Applicatio & Control
    • put into practice
    • theories system
    • from understanding to description
  6. scientific method
    formulate a testable hypothesis, design the study, collect the data, analyze data & draw conclusions, and report findings
  7. Formulate A testable Hypothesis
    • must be formulated precisely and the variables must be clearly defined
  8. Select a research method and design study
    • empirical test
    • participants or subjects are systematically observed
  9. analyze data & draw conclusions
    has hypothesis been supported
  10. report findings
    • concise summary
    • possiby a published journal
  11. advantages of scientific approach
    • clarity & precision
    • intolerance of error
  12. evperimental research
    investigator manipulates a variable under carefully controlled conditions and observes whether any changes occur as a result
  13. experiment
    finding out whether the independent variable being manipulated effects the dependent variable
  14. independent variable
    experimenter controls or manipulates for testing
  15. dependent variable
    • usually studies subjects behavior
    • thought to be affected by manipulation of independent variable
  16. experimental group
    subjects who receive some special treatment in regard to the independent variable
  17. control group
    subjects in experiment not receiving special treatment
  18. extraneous variables
    seem likely to influence dependent variables in a specific study
  19. confounding variables
    two variables are linked in a way that makes it difficult to sort out their effects
  20. random assignment
    when all subjects have equal chance of being assigned to any group or conditions
  21. advantage of research experiments
    permits conclusions about cause-effect relationships between variables
  22. disadvantage of research experiments
    • often artificial in nature
    • cannot be used to measure all research questions
  23. descriptive/correlational research
    investigators see whether there is a link or association between variables
  24. correlation
    • two variables are related to each other
    • may be postive or negative
  25. positive correlation
    two variables co-vary (change together) in the same direction
  26. negative correlation
    two variables co-vary(change together) in the opposite direction
  27. correlation coeffieient
    • numerical index of the degree of relationship between variables
    • varies from 0-1.0(-,+)
    • the closer to 1.0 , stronger relationship
  28. naturalistic observation
    researcher engages in careful observation of behavior without intervening directly
  29. case studies
    in depth investigation of an individual subject
  30. surveys
    questionnaires or interview gather info anout specific aspects of participants background and behavior
  31. descriptive/correlation advantage
    able to question aspects that cannot through experimental research
  32. desriptive/correlational disadvantage
    • no implication for cause and effect
    • only that the variables are related
  33. replication
    repitition of a study to see whether the earlier results are duplicated
  34. sampling bias
    sample not representative of population
  35. placebo effect
    participants expectations lead them to experience some change, though artificial
  36. self report data
    • verbal accounts of behavior
    • problematic due to social desirability bias
  37. experimenter bias
    researcher's expectations or preferences influence results
  38. deception
    • scientists use this to try dealing wit placebo effects, unreliability of self-reports, and other research problems
    • critics argue: lying, undermine trust in others, distress produced
  39. animal research
    can expose them to treatments unacceptable for humans

    argument: wrong to harm or cause pain, unnecessary cruelty for "trivial" studies, and results may not even apply to humans
  40. quote
    Although scientific methods have stood the test of time, individual scientists are human and fallible
Card Set
chapter 2