APEuro age of revolution

  1. proletariat
    urban working class
  2. ancien regime
    old government; term for the government in france before the revolution
  3. sans-culottes
    • a nickname meaning "without fancy pants"
    • term for urban working class
  4. taille/gabelle
    • head tax
    • salt tax
  5. 4th estate
    term from american politics; it refers to the media
  6. depot
    a warehouse
  7. garrison
    soldiers who man a particular position
  8. refactory clergy
    french priests who refused to swear loyalty to the state
  9. liberty, equality and fraternity
    motto of french revolution
  10. eged
    to encourage bad behavior
  11. emigres
    term for those who had fled revolutionary france
  12. emigrant
    coming out
  13. immigrant
    coming in
  14. jacobin
    the dominant radical revolutionary club in the national convention
  15. mountain
    the most radical revolutionary faction of the jacobins, led by robespierre
  16. girondin
    • aka the plain
    • the more moderate faction of the jacobin
  17. fervor
    intense feeling, passion
  18. abroad
    outside the country
  19. artillery
  20. annul
    to cancel after the fact; to make illegitimate
  21. coup d'etat
    • "acceptable coup"
    • a military overthrow of the government
  22. merit
    that which you have earned or deserved
  23. universal manhood suffrage
    all adult males can vote
  24. suffrage
    the right to vote
  25. franchise
    the right to vote
  26. enfranchise
    to give the right to vote
  27. concordat
    an agreement or treaty
  28. plebiscite
    a vote either yes or no
  29. embargo
    to end all trade with another nation
  30. guerilla war
    little war; a war fought with unorthodox, unconventional tactics
  31. scorched earth
    russian military technique of burning everything so the enemy cannot use it
  32. restoration
    the idea of putting back in place the old governments or systems
  33. legitimacy
    the principle of putting in power the rightful ruler of parliament
  34. puppet states
    a nation who's government is actually controlled by somebody else
  35. cahier de coleances
    petitions of what the people wanted in the new government
  36. battle of trafalgar
    • 1805 off the coast of spain and egypt
    • -lord nelson
    • ended napoleon's hopes of invading britain
  37. lord nelson
    battle of trafalgar
  38. battle of waterloo
    • 1815
    • france led by duke wellington
    • -france won
    • final defeat of napoleon
    • afterwards he was exiled to st. helena
  39. battle of austerlitz
    • 1805 austria and russia vs. france
    • france won
  40. battle of the nations
    (battle of leipzig)
    • 1813
    • saxony confederation of the rhine
  41. necker
    • 1777
    • first finance minister was dismissed when he proposed taxation of the nobility
  42. calonne
    • second finance minister
    • proposed taxation of all land-owners including the king
  43. brienne
    • third finance minister
    • agreed with calonne on taxation
    • persuaded louis to arrest the leading nobles
  44. tennis court oath
    • the new national assembly swore an oath to keep meeting until they had written a constitution
    • *declaration of the rights of man
  45. bastille
    • july 14, 1789
    • citizens of paris stormed this infamous prison looking for weapons to defend their city against the army
  46. declaration of the rights of man
    • first constitution of france
    • promised the basic rights of
    • -free speech
    • -religious toleration
    • -liberty
    • -equality before the law
  47. october days
    the women's march
    • 1789
    • a mob of angry women marched to versailles, killed guards and forced the royal family to live back at versailles
  48. reflections on the revolution in france
    • edmund burke
    • a condemnation of what was happening in france
    • -no single generation had the right to destroy the work of all the generations that came before it
  49. committee of public safety
    • robespierre, danton, marat
    • selected by the national convention to run as a virtual dictatorship
    • -lead the terror
  50. napoleon bonaparte
    • a virtual military dictator who sought to keep the good aspects of the revolution but with greater order and stability
    • -head of consulate government
    • "in any corporal's hand..."
  51. code napoleon
    • equality before the law
    • -policy of justice where you were guilty until proven innocent
  52. continental system
    • a failed french attempt at economic warfare with britain
    • -all of napoleon's states resisted trade with britain
  53. berlin decrees
    decrees that stated napoleon's states could not trade with britain
  54. invasion of russia
    • napoleon's grand armee of 600,000 men advanced
    • russian forces used scorched earth and retreated
    • napoleon was forced to turn back during the winter
  55. what is the third estate
    • abbey sieyes
    • the third estate is everything.
    • revolutionary pamphlet
  56. estates general
    national assembly
    • 3rd estate demanded "one man, one vote"
    • when the estates general took a long time to decide, the third estate proclaimed itself a new parliament
  57. great fear
    • panic and chaos across the country caused by fear of aristocratic restoration of powers
    • -peasants attacked noble estates
  58. civil constitution of the clergy
    • passed by the national assembly to force the clergy to swear loyalty to the state over the church
    • = refactory clergy
  59. declaration of pillnitz
    out of opposition to the situation in france, austria and prussia pledged to attack in their own time to put the king back on the thrown and crush the revolution
  60. consulate
    • 1st government of napoleon
    • -napoleon was part of a group that ran the country but in reality was a military dictator
  61. treaty of tilsit
    • treaty with russia (alexander I)
    • after battle of friedland in 1807 that kept alexander on the throne
  62. peninsula war
    • fransisco goya
    • when napoleon tried to go through spain to attack portugal they resisted, aided by the british
  63. concordat with the church
    • napoleon received the church's blessing as emperor
    • in return her recognized the majority of the french were catholic
  64. declaration of the rights of women
    • olympia de gouges
    • first work to argue for the rights of women
    • same responsibilities= same rights
  65. louis XVIII
    • weak but well intentional monarch
    • -married to marie antoinette
    • hired a series of finance ministers
    • eventually influenced by the 2nd and 3rd estates
    • guillotined
  66. congress of vienna
    • final peace settlement after napoleon's defeat
    • -quadruple alliance
    • (holy alliance)
  67. 1789
    • seminal year;
    • year of revolution
  68. first estate
    clergy and catholic church, 10% land, no taxes
  69. second estate
    french aristocrats; 30% land no taxes
  70. third estate
    the masses of france; 50% land, all taxes
  71. order of the governments in revolutionary france
    • estates general
    • national assembly
    • legislative assembly
    • first republic
    • -national convention 1792
    • -committee of public safety 1792-1794
    • -directory 1794-1799
    • -consulate 1799-1804
  72. napoleonic art
    • coronation of napoleon by david
    • the third of may by goya
  73. peninsula war
    • 1807-1814
    • napoleon tried to go through spain in order to attack portugal
    • spain resisted with the help of britain
    • vicious guerilla war
  74. elba
    island napoleon was exiled to
  75. hundred days
    • 1815
    • when napoleon escaped elba, france quickly rallied around him
    • louis XVIII had to flee
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APEuro age of revolution