302 Blood Glucose Monitoring

  1. What does Blood Glucose Monitoring do??
    • **Measures blood glucose levels for monitoring control
    • of diabetes mellitus.

    Test results direct:

    • –   Diet
    • –   Amount and type of medication
    • –   Exercise prescription

    • **Helps prevent diabetic emergencies by prompt detection
    • & treatment of hypo- & hyperglycemia
  2. What is diabetes??Image Upload 1
    **Inability of the pancreas to either produce enough insulin or the body’s inability to utilize the insulin it has.

    (Insulin is the substance that converts glucose to a form that is usable by the body....Thus, low insulin equal high glucose circulating in the blood but not utilized by the cells.)
  3. Complications of Abnormal Blood Glucose:
    • *Heart attack
    • *Cerebrovascular accident
    • *Kidney dysfunction
    • *Blindness
    • *Nerve damage
  4. What is the normal range for FASTING glucose control?
  5. What is the goal range for FASTING glucose control?
  6. At what range is intervention needed for FASTING glucose control?
    <80 or >140
  7. What is the normal range for POSTPARANDIAL glucose control??
  8. What is the goal range for POSTPARANDIAL glucose control??
  9. At what range is intervention needed for POSTPARANDIAL glucose control?
  10. What is the normal range for BEDTIME glucose control?
  11. What is the goal for BEDTIME glucose control?
  12. When is intervention needed for BEDTIME glucose control?
    <100 or >160
  13. What is the normal range for glycosylated hemoglobin?
  14. What is the goal range for glycosylated hemoglobin?
  15. When is intervention needed for glycosylated hemoglobin?
  16. When doing a blood glucose monitoring assessment...what do you look for?
    • *Client’s understanding
    • *Health history
    • *Specific conditions of specimen collection
    • *Site selection
    • *Client’s ability to self-test
    • *Presence of signs & symptoms glucose alteration
    • *Calibration of equipment
  17. At what point when checking blood glucose should you intervene immediately???
  18. What is Hypoglycemia?
    • –Low blood sugar
    • (hyperinsulinemia)
  19. What is Hyperglycemia?
    • -High blood sugar
    • (inadequate insulin)
  20. Complications/Manifestations of Hypoglycemia:
    • Sweating
    • Tachycardia
    • Palpitations
    • Nervousness
    • Tremors
    • Weakness
    • Headache
    • Mental confusion
    • Fatigue
  21. Manifestations of Hyperglycemia:
    • Thirst
    • Polyuria
    • Polyphagia
    • Weakness
    • Fatigue
    • Headache
    • Blurred vision
    • Nausea
    • Vomiting
    • Abdominal cramping
  22. Causes of Hyperglycemia:
    • Hypoglycemic/insulin dose
    • Diet
    • Acute infection (i.e. upper respiratory infection such as the flu, bad cold; urinary tract infection; skin infection)
    • Stress (school, social, environmental)
    • Loss of insulin potency
    • Not receiving insulin from pump
  23. Equipment needed for Blood Glucose monitoring:


    –Antiseptic swab

    –Cotton ball or gauze

    –Sterile lancet

    –Paper towel

    –Sharps box

    –Test strips
  24. BGL implemation:
    Wash hands

    Position site lower than heart

    Gather supplies and turn on meter

    Select site and cleanse

    Position lancet firmly against site and pierce skin

    Collect sample

    • Read results...
    • Once results are available,
    • –Appropriate intervention for the value obtained, then:

    dispose of used supplies

    document results

    turn meter off (enter comments as indicated)
  25. Once you have performed the Blood Glucose testing...
    Observe site for bleeding or bruising

    Compare client readings with normal values

    Ask client to discuss procedures & test results

    Observe client performing self-testing
  26. Example of how to document a blood glucose level:
    • –0730 Blood glucose 110. No insulin required.
    • –1200 Blood glucose 240. Regular insulin (4 units) given subcutaneously per sliding scale order.

    **Some facilities have a flowsheet and others note results on MAR.
Card Set
302 Blood Glucose Monitoring
Exam 1