AP Psychology Unit 2 Key Terms

  1. The tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one would have foreseen it. (Also known as the I-knew-it-all-along phenomenon).
    Hindsight bias
  2. Assigning participants to experimental and control groups by chance, thus minimizing preexisting differences between those assigned to the different groups.
    Random assignment
  3. Thinking that does not blindly accept agruments and conclusions. Rather, it examines assumptions, discerns hidden values, evaluates eviddence, and asseses conclusions.
    Critical thinking
  4. An experimental procedure in which both the research participants and the research staff are ignorant (blind) about whether the research participants have received the treatment or a placebo. Commonly used in drug-evaluation studies.
    Double-blind procedure
  5. An explanation using an integrated set of principles that organizes observations and predicts behavior or events.
  6. Experimental results caused by expectations alone; any effect on behavior caused by the administration of an inert substance or condition, which the recipient assumes is an active agent.
    Placebo effect
  7. A testable prediction, often implied by a theory.
  8. In an experiment, the group that is exposed to the treatment, that is, to one version of the independent variable.
    Experimental group
  9. A statement of the procedures (operations) used to define research variables. For example, human intelligence may be operationally defined as what an intelligence test meausures.
    Operational definition
  10. In an experiment, the group that is not exposed to the treatment; contrasts with the experimental group and serves as a comparison for evaluation the effect of the treatment.
    Control group
  11. Repeating the essence of a research study, usually with different participants in different situations, to see whether the basic finding extends to other participants and circumstances.
  12. The experimental factor that is manipulated; the variable whose effect is being studied.
    Independent variable
  13. An observation technique in which one person is studied in depth in the hope of revealing universal principles.
    Case study
  14. A factor other than the independent variable that might produce an effect in an experiment.
    Cofounding variable
  15. A technique for ascertaining the self-reported attitudes or behaviors of a particular group, usually by questioning a representative, random sample of the group.
  16. The outcome factor; the variable that may change in response to manipulations of the independent variable.
    Dependent variable
  17. All the cases in a group being studied, from which samples may be drawn. (Note: Except for national studies, this does not refer to a country's whole __________).
  18. The most frequently occuring score(s) in a distribution.
  19. A sample that fairly represents a population because each member has an equal chance of inclusion.
    Random sample
  20. The arithmetic average of a distribution, obtained by adding the scores and then dividing by the number of scores.
  21. Observing and recording behavior in naturally occuring situations without trying to manipulate and control the situation.
    Naturalistic observation
  22. The middle score in a distribution; half the scores are above it and half are below it.
  23. A mesaure of the extent to which two factors vary together, and thus of how well either factor predicts the other.
  24. The difference between the highest and lowest scores in a distribution.
  25. A statistical index of the relationship between two things (from -1 to +1).
    Correlation coefficient
  26. A computed measure of how much scores vary around the mean score.
    Standard deviation
  27. A graphed cluster of dots, each of which represents the values of two variables. The slope of the points suggests the direction of the relationship between the two variables. The amount of scatter suggests the strength of the correlation (little scatter indicates high correlation).
    Scatter plot
  28. A symmetrical, bell shaped curve that describes the distribution of many types of data; most scores fall near the mean (68 percent fall within one standard deviation of it) and fewer and fewer near the extremes.
    Normal curve (normal distribution)
  29. The perception of a relationship where none exists.
    Illusory correlation
  30. A statistical statement of how likely it is that an obtained result occured by chance.
    Statistical significance
  31. A research method in which an investigator manipulates one or more factors (independent variables) to observe the effect on some behavior or mental process (the dependent variable). By random assignment of participants, the __________er aims to control other releveant factors.
  32. Hindisght bias and overconfidence often lead us to overestimate our intuition. What can help us sift inquiry can help us sift reality from illusion?
    Scientific inquiry
  33. A passion to explore and understand without misleading or being misled.
  34. Letting the facts speak for themselves.
    Empirical approach
  35. Being skeptical but not cynical, open but not gullible.
    Scientific attitude
  36. What are the two questions that one should ask themselves when having a scientific attitude?
    • 1. What do you mean?
    • 2. How do you know?
  37. An awareness of our own vulnerability to error and an openness to surprises and new perspectives.
  38. What are the three components of the scientific attitude?
    • 1. Curiosity
    • 2. Skepticism
    • 3. Humility
  39. What does scientific attitude combine?
    Skeptical testing of various claims and ideas with humility about one's own unexamined presumptions.
  40. How does a theory simplify?
    By organizing isolated facts.
  41. How does a theory offer a useful summary?
    By linking facts and bridging them
  42. Operational definiton of hunger.
    "Hours without eating"
  43. Operational definiton of generosity.
    "Money contributed"
  44. Good theories explain by...
    • 1) Organizing and linking observed facts, and
    • (2) implying hypotheses that offer testable predictions and, sometimes, pratical applications.
  45. We can refine theories using...
    • 1. Descriptive methods (which describe behaviors, often using case studies, surveys, or naturalistic observations)
    • 2.Correlational methods ( which associate different factors)
    • 3. Experimental methods (which manipulate factors to discover their effects)
  46. What suggests directions for further study, and they show us what can happen. (Misleading if atypical)
    Case studies
  47. Wording is a delicate matter, these people will reflect on how the phrasing of a question might affect people's expressed opinions.
    Critical thinkers
  48. What is the best basis for genarlizing?
    From a representative sample of cases.
  49. Before accepting survey findings think critically and consider the sample. You cannot compensate for an unrepresentative sample by...
    simple adding more people.
  50. Case study, survey methods, & naturalistic observation does not explain behavior, it....
  51. ________ correlation if two sets of scores tend to rise or fall together.
  52. ________ correlation if two sets of scores relate inversely.
  53. _____ correlation, indicating litte relationship, coefficient near zero.
  54. Reveals the extent to which two things relate.
    Correlation coefficient
  55. Indicates the possibility of a cause-effect relationship, but it does not prove causation.
  56. Often don't look random.
  57. How do psychologists isolate cause and effect?
    By statistically controlling other factors.
  58. Unlike correlational studies, which uncover naturally occurring relationships, an experiment...
    Manipulates a factors to determine its effect.
  59. An experimental procedure in which both the research participants and the research staff are ignorant (blind) about whteher the research participants have receieved the treatment of a placebo. Commonly used in drug-evaluation studies.
    Double-blind procedure
  60. What roughly equalizes two groups?
    Random assignments
  61. With ______ __________ we can conclude that differences are usually the result of the experiment.
    Random assignment
  62. Controls for possible cofounding variables.
    Random assignment
  63. Helps us generalize to a larger population.
    Random sampling
  64. Controls extraneous influences, which helps us infer cause and effect.
  65. A single score that represents a whole set of scores.
    Measure of central tendency
  66. What principles can guide our making generalizations from samples and deciding whether differences are significant?
    • 1. Representative samples are better than biased samples.
    • 2. Less-variable observations are more reliable than those that are more variable.
    • 3. More cases are better than fewer.
  67. When averages from two samples are each reliable measures of their respective populations, then their what is likely to be reliable as well?
  68. When the difference between the sample averages is _____, we have even more confidence that the difference between them reflects a real difference in their populations.
  69. A finding's magnitude and reliability.
    Effect size
  70. Statistical significance indicates the ___________ that a result will happen by chance. But this does not say anything about the __________ of the result.
    Likelihood, importance
  71. An experiment's purpose is not to re-create the exact behaviors of everyday life but to test....
    Theoretical principles
  72. It is this, not the specific findings, that help explain everyday behaviors.
    Resulting principles
  73. Psychologists' concerns lie less with ______ _________ than with discovering _______ __________ that help explain many behaviors.
    Unique behaviors, general principles
  74. The enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, and traditions shared by a group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next.
  75. What helps us discern our similarities and our differences, our human kinship and our diversity?
    Studying people of all races and cultures.
  76. Even when specific attitudes and behaviors vary by gender or across cultures, as they often do, the __________ _________ are much the same.
    Underlying processes
  77. Why do psychologists study animals?
    • 1. Find them fascinating
    • 2. Learn about people
    • 3. Want to understand how different species learn, think, and behave
  78. An ethical principles that research participants be told enough to enable them to choose whether they wish to participate.
    Informed consent
  79. The post experimental explanation of a study, including its purpose and any deceptions, to its participants.
  80. What are the 4 steps to maintaining ethicalness to experiment on people?
    • (1) Obtain the informed consent of potential participants.
    • (2) Protect them from harm and discomfort
    • (3) Treat information about individual participants confidentially
    • (4) Fully debrief people
  81. Is psychology free of value judgments?
    NO! Values affect what we study, how we study it, and how we interpret results.
  82. How are humans and animal research subjects protected?
    • 1. Animal protection legislation
    • 2. Laboratory regulation and inspection
    • 3. Local ethics communities protect human and animal welfare
  83. How do theories advance psychological science?
    Psycological theories organize observations and imply predictive hypotheses. After constructing precise operational definitions of their procedures, researchers test their hypotheses, validate and refine the theory, and, suggest practical applications. If other researchers can replicate the study with similar results, we can then place greater confidence in the conclusion.
  84. What statistical technique would be appropriate for a researcher to use in trying to determine how consistent intelligence scores are over time?
    Standard deviation
  85. A scientist's willingness to admit that she is wrong is an example of...
  86. Let's say a psychology researcher is interested in testing whether a particular parenting technique would lead adolescents to feel more satisfied with their lives. What method should be used?
  87. When a distribution of scores is skewed, the best representation of central tendency is the...
  88. A researcher who wants to conduct an experiment to determine if eating a cookie before class each day improves students' grades. He uses two psychology classes for the experiment, providing daily cookies to one and nothing to the other. At the end of the semester, the researcher compares the final grades of students in the two classes. What is the independent variable for this experiment?
    The presence or absence of cookies.
  89. Which of the following represents naturalistic observation?
    From a third-floor window, researchers watch how elemntary school children interact on a playground.
  90. "Monday morning quarterbacks" rarely act surprised about the outcome of weekend football games. Their tendency to believe they knew how the game would turn out is explained by...
    Hindsight bias.
  91. Researchers studying gender have found that...
    there are more similarities than differences between the genders.
  92. A studnet is writing an article for her school newspaper about the school's new cell-phone policy, and she'd like to include survey results from a random sample of students in her article. Which of the following constitutes a random sample?
    The writer pulls the names of five students from a hat that contains all students' names. She interviews the five selected students.
  93. Which of the following is a positive correlation?
    People who exercise regularly are less likely to be obese.
  94. Why is random assignment of participatnts to groups an important aspect of a properly designed experiment?
    Random assignments keeps expectations from influencing the results of the experiement.
  95. Which of the following demonstrates the need for psychological science?
    Intuition and common sense are not always correct.
  96. Which of the following is a potential problem with case studies?
    They may be misleading because they don't fairly represent other cases.
  97. Which of the following is not an ethical principle regarding research on humans?
    Participants must take part in the study on a voluntary basis.
  98. There is a negative correlation between TV watching and grades. What can we properly conclude from this discovery?
    We cannot conclude anything about cause and effect.
Card Set
AP Psychology Unit 2 Key Terms
AP Psychology Unit 2 Key Terms