Foundations Final

  1. How does an individual maintain their ARRT certification?
    • pay an annual fee
    • adhere to the code of ethics
    • have 24 hours of continuing education credits every two years
  2. what is the process called by which a neutral atom gains or loses an electron thus acquiring a net charge?
  3. who discovered x-ray?
    wilhelm roentgen
  4. when were x-rays discovered?
    november 8, 1895
  5. The first MEDICAL x-ray image ever produced was of who and of what?
    wilhelm roentgen's wife's hand
  6. what initals would follow your name in the registry if you were certified in Radiography and Magnetic Resonance Imaging?
    RT(R) (MR)
  7. RSNA
    Radiologic Society of North America
  8. ARRT
    American Registry of Radiologic Technologists
  9. ASRT
    American Society of Radiologic Technologists
  10. NCSRT
    North Carolina Society of Radiologic Technologists
  11. JRCERT
    Joint Review Committee on Education in Radiology Technology
  12. RT (R)
    Registered Technologist, Radiographer
  13. Registry
    listing of individuals holding a particular certification
  14. Certification
    process which an agency grants recognition to an individual on demonstration, usually examination, of a specialized professional skill
  15. Radiation
    energy that is transmitted by waves through space or through a medium (matter)
  16. 3 Study skill techniques
    • plan a regular schedule of study
    • study in a group
    • use as many senses a possible
  17. 3 test taking tips
    • No last minute cramming
    • Wear bright-colored clothes
    • Get a good nights sleep
  18. The buffering stressors are meditation/visualization, nutrition, and
  19. which specialty produces images of breast tissue?
  20. when managing time, practice self-management, which includes:
    prioritizing, setting limits, and providing for self-care
  21. when we worry, what percent of what we worry about actually happens?
  22. Individuals who use words or phrases that express a lack of control, they are using:
    out-of-control language
  23. All of the following are examples of aerobic exercise except
  24. which of the following specialties uses a nonionizing form of radiation?
  25. the term used when referencing the study of diseases of muscles and bones
  26. a ___ is a voluntary peer process through which an agency grants recognition to an institution for a program of study that meets specified criteria
  27. ___ is the biggest waste of time
  28. A demand on time, energy, and resources with some threat included is a definition of what?
  29. In-control language
    is positive and expresses choice
  30. which speciality uses a strong magnetic field to produce images?
  31. Sound waves used in diagnostic medical sonography is an example of what type of energy?
  32. what part of the body is imaged in radiography?
    all of the above
  33. the specialized certification which utilizes the introduction of a radioactive pharmaceutical is:
    nuclear medicine
  34. which of the following is a listing of individuals holding a certification in a particular profession?
  35. radiation therapy uses high-energy ionizing radiation to heat malignant tumors
  36. medical sonography uses heat as a form of energy
  37. a radiograph is a film record produced to visualize the internal structures of the body
  38. a technologist applies knowledge to problem solving situations with a higher level of education and knowledge
  39. an examination of the breast is MRI
  40. a radiologic technologist must acquire 18 CE credits every year
  41. a pessimistic outlook can affect one's health
  42. english physician responsible for the vaccine to prevent smallpox
    edward jenner
  43. english nurse, foundation of modern nursing
    florence nightingale
  44. english physician credited with laying the foundation of modern medicine. First to demonstrate the function and circulation of blood.
    William harvey
  45. french chemist who worked with bacteria to prove the germ theory of infection, process of pasteurization
    louis pateur
  46. A firm reference point for determining the appropriate behavior for technologist behavior would be:
    referencing the ASRT Practice Standards and ARRT Code of Ethics
  47. After a student has demonstrated competency on a radiographic procedure, the type of supervision for that procedure would be:
  48. while working as a radiographer you design a unique receptor holder to use during portable procedures that clearly reduces the exposure of others by lessing the need to hold patients or cassettes. The development of this imaging device shows that you are functioning at what level of learning?
  49. The complexities of a hospital and all of its departments, professions, infrastructure and design can be likened to:
    communties within a community
  50. A a student radiographer you have been assigned to work with a classmate as part of a group project. Your assignment is to produce an x-ray image of a nonroutine projection of the skull. To do this, you would perform this:
    using a skull phantom in a laboratory setting
  51. As a student gain competency in medical imaging procedures, three phases in the clinical setting are planned by clinical faculty. These three phases in the correct learning sequence are:
    observation, assistance, performance
  52. A typical organizational structure of a hospital will have the hospital's chief executive officer (CEO) or president reporting to the:
    board of directors
  53. As a radiography student you will be expected to demonstrate clinical competency in various procedures as part of your clinical rotations. the required number of mandatory competecies is currently:
  54. Owing to the changing practices of medicine, many radiologic prodcedures that were commonplace many years ago are now performed in smaller numbers. when such is the case, students may perform selected competencies in a:
    simulation environment
  55. the cognitive domain includes which of the following behaviors?
    all of the above (knowledge, understanding, reason)
  56. in addition to traditional hospital setting for health care, it is quite common to offer medical imaging services in a wide variety of medical settings. these site could include:
    outpatient clinics, freestanding imaging centers, physician offices and clinics, and urgent care centers
  57. once a radiography student has completed all academic and clinical requirements aand achieved graduation he or she:
    is expected to perform according to his or her employer's policies
  58. what is the fourth step involved in problem solving associated with critical thinking?
    select the best outcome for the patient
  59. all of the following are sub-departments of radiology except:
  60. All of the following are true of radiologic technology program direct EXCEPT:
    the program director must be registered in radiologic technology by the JRCERT
  61. The transfer of knowledge gained in the laboratory or classroom setting is best demonstrated:
    in an actual clinical setting on patients
  62. You are completing your clinical rotation in a small department that is typically understaffed, particularly on fridays. on this day the department supervisor has asked a couple of the second-year students if they would skip a scheduled class meeting because of staffing shortages. This event would be viewed as a(n):
    violation of JRCERT standards
  63. Which of the following steps describes the management function that involves the process of deciding in advance what is to be acomplished?
  64. In large hospitals the person responsible for the operations of radiologic services typically the administrative director of radiology. this individual must have strong managerial and other skills, including:
    leadership skills, finance and budgeting skills, strategic planning skills, customer service skills, communications and public relations skills
  65. ....As you begin to repeat the image, your first critical analysis thought should be to:
    clearly identify the problem that led to the suboptimal image
  66. all of the physicians practicing medicine within a hospital comprise the hospital's
    medical staff
  67. To a medical imaging department, the customer could be described as:
    all of the above
  68. Which of the following regulatory agencies is responsible for safety in the workplace?
  69. The american society of radiologic technologists (ASRT) publishes ___ that help define specific professional expectations and responsibilities
    practice standards
  70. student learning that occurs in a classroom setting is referred to as ___ learning
  71. All of the following are related EXCEPT:
    quality control inspections (QCI)
  72. Examples of internal committess within a hospital enterprise include the:
    radiation safety committee, infection control committee, P&T committee
  73. the federal agency that regulates the use of ionizing radiation including medical and nuclear applications is the:
    Nuclear Regulatory Commisssion (NRC)
  74. A formal document that outlines the departmental structure of a hospital by showing lines of authority, reporting structures, and the interrelationships of departments is a(n):
    organizational chart
  75. a document that guides a hospital as to its purposes and role in the community it serves is called a:
    mission statement
  76. All are management functions except:
  77. which of the following situations would require critical analysis thinking skills?
    improvising the angulation of the x-ray tube to compensate for a patient condition, your supervisor asking you to develop a new quality control plan, respositioning a patient after assessing the patient's previous images, modifying exposure factors after reviewing the patient's history
  78. a high-quality radiologic science program should provide:
    all of the above
  79. each of the following is a learning domain except:
  80. to prevent an incorrect ultrasound examination from occuring in the future, what type of analysis needs to be undertaken by the department?
    CQI analysis
  81. It is uncommon for a technologist to be disciplined for:
    all of the above
  82. which of the following is the best single choice that illustrates desirable goodwill efforts enhancing public image?
    wearing attire that is consistent with the dress code and presenting an upbeat attitude
  83. The management function that involves getting the right people to do the work and develop their abilities is called:
  84. The management fucntion that involves the development of a structure or framework that identifies how people do their work is called:
  85. employers are looking for two principle traits in all radiologic science professionals. these traits are:
    technical competency and teamwork skills
  86. when you write a lengthy essay on your feelings about radiation protection, you are analyzing your:
    values that are learned or instilled as a part of your affective education
  87. Critical thinking is an essential part of radiologic sciences profession. This requires the professional radiographer to use broad intellectual skills and experiences when making the correct choice for any given situation, as a result of the fact that:
    all of the above
  88. The transmission, display, and storage of these images is accomplished through what type of technology?
  89. Department policy requires a repeat image. In doing so, you must aware that:
    a qualified practitioner must review your repeat procedures and directly supervise your work
  90. A female radiography student is considered pregnant when she:
    voluntarily declares her pregnancy in writing to program officials
  91. All of the following choices would generally require critical analysis thinking EXCEPT:
    checking in for work and reviewing the day's schedule
  92. In providing radiology care a patient, you observe a colleague accidentally exposing the wrong body part. It appears that he is unaware of the mistake. This action would be considered a(n):
    medical error
  93. All of the following choices would describe a typical radiologist group in a contemporary hospital EXCEPT:
    the hospital will coonduct their business operations and management, including recruitment
  94. The photon interaction that results in the highest occupational exposure in ____ interactions.
  95. When laser light stimulates the sensing material in an optically stimulated luminescence dosimeter (OSL), the:
    material luminescence in proportion to the amount of radiation exposure received
  96. The radiographic beam should be collimated so that it is___ the image receptor
    no larger than
  97. A person's hair color and texture as well as his or her skin condition would be an example of what area of human diversity?
    biologic variations
  98. the dose equivalent limits for radiation workers is based on the radiation recieved from what sources?
    occupational expsoure
  99. why is an x-ray tube glass envelope made of pyrex glass?
    to better withstand the heat produced
  100. A popular feature on x-ray generators that reduces repeat exposures caused by inaccurate exposure technique selection by technologists is:
    automatic exposure control (AEC)
  101. you have just completed a chest radiograph on a young female patient. As you review the image you notice she was wearing a necklace during the exposure and it is clearly over the chest anatomy, submitting this image to the radiologist for interpretation would:
    detract from the diagnostic efficacy of the image as it is not part of the patient's anatomy
  102. a given dose of radiation generally has the greatest potential for damage in tissues that have:
    more rapidly dividing cells
  103. Desirable features of modern radiographic table consist of which of the following?
    variable height, four-way floating tabletop, radiolucent tabletop, convient and ergonomic friendly controls
  104. chest radiographs and upright abdominal studies are conviently performed using a(n):
    upright cassette holder or Bucky
  105. The term PSP techonology commonly refers to:
    computed radiography (CR)
  106. the irrational fear of homosexual person's sexual orientation is referred to as:
  107. the matieral commonly used for shielding against retaliation exposure in protective aprons and gloves is:
  108. the correct combination of exposure factors necessary to yield a total of 24 mAs using the shortest exposure time to minimize patient motion is ___ mA at ___
    500; 48ms
  109. All of the following are considered cultures EXCEPT:
  110. Which of the following is a principle of the ALARA concept?
    the radiographer's occupational exposure should be kept as low as reasonably achieveable
  111. It is illegal to deny an individual the oppourtunity to advance professionally through employement because of
  112. A native born latino individual who has moved to the united states and successfully blended into local community activities such as work, school, church and volunteering, without losing his native culture demonstrates
  113. Medical images that are displayed on a television monitor rather than on film are referred to as ___ images.
    soft copy
  114. with regard to the annual whole-body effective dose limit for the occupational personnel:
    all of the above are true
  115. fluoroscopy done in the surgical theatre is typically accomplished with a:
    portable c-arm system
  116. if a technologist stands 2 meters from an x-ray tube and recieves an exposure rate of 4mR/hr, the exposure rate would be ____ mR/hr if hte person stands 4 meters from the x-ray tube
  117. A group making derogatory statements about obese people is demonstrating
  118. A social organization organization that seeks to understand and accept peoples from diverse backgrounds through policies and procedures, communication media, activities and so on in an effort to achieve a positive cross cultural enviornment is seeking to achieve
    cultural competency
  119. with regard to the ALARA principle, the responsibility of the radiographer is to:
    keep radiation exposures at the lowest levels possible
  120. Because the patient is pregnant, the radiographer should:
    select the lowest exposure factors that will produce a diagnostically useful radiograph, adequately and precisely collimate the radiographic beam to include only the atomic area of interest, shield the patients lower abdomen and pelvic region with a suitable protective contact shield
  121. The latent image in computed radiography is actually ____ within the barium fluorohalide material
    electron traps
  122. In which of the following x-ray interactions with matter is the energy of the incident photon completely absorbed?
    photoelectric absorption
  123. Another term for human diversity is:
    cultural diversity
  124. An effective strategy for dealing with a patient that doesn't speak english would be:
    delaying the procedure until a hospital translator can be present during the explanation
  125. which group is the fastest growing population in the u.s.?
    over 85
  126. for a medical imaging department manager, reasonable efforts to improve human diversity in the department would include all of the following except:
    requiring all department employees to speak a second language
  127. the function of an x-ray beam filter in diagnostic radiology is to:
    decrease the x-radiation dose to the patient's skin and superficial tissue
  128. All of the following is true of CR technology EXCEPT:
    there is no difference in image resolution between the three image plate (cassette) sizes.
  129. An ethnic group that would place a cultural core value on the sacredness of the earth and its waters, clean air, wildlife, and foilage would most likely be:
    Native American
  130. It is safe to conclude that in the years ahead, the u.s population will :
    require more diverse health care labor force
  131. Acute radiation syndrome manifests in four major stages. In what order do these stages occur?
    prodromal period, latent period, manifest stage, recovery or death
  132. A general radiographic imaging system consists of which of the compenents identified below?
    control console and generator, x-ray tube and support assembly, x-ray table and upright cassette holder, collimator assembly
  133. The americans with disabilities act of 1990 provides for all of the following conditions EXCEPT:
    employees must speak English and understand the nature of disability
  134. For a pregnant radiographer who declares her pregnancy to the employer, a second personnel monitoring device is provided. The purpose of this additional monitor is to ensure that the monthly equivalent dose to the embryo or fetus does not exceed ___ mSv (___ rem)
    .5, .05
  135. the part of the radiographic system that produces the x-ray is the:
    x-ray tube
  136. which of the following would not reflect a human diversity characteristic?
  137. which of the following personnel radiation monitors will provide a near-immediate reading of radation exposure, if necessary?
    pocket dosimeter
  138. the photon interaction that results in the highest patient exposure is ___ interactions.
  139. Group talking about a doctor's skin color and dialect demonstrates what?
  140. Radiographic exposure technique selction is performed with what compenent of an x-ray system?
    operator's console
  141. The radiation a person recieves from the sun (cosmic radiation) is categorized as:
    natural background radiation
  142. The law of Bergonie and Tribondeau states that cells are more radiosensitive if they are
    undifferentiated and mature cells
  143. The science of rightness and wrongness of human conduct and character is called:
  144. A/an ___ can occur it a technologist touches a patient or perform an examination without the patient's permission
  145. The regulations established by a government that apply to people within a certain political subdivision is called:
  146. The belief that individual rights provide vital protection of life, liberty, expression, and property is called:
    Rights-based ethics
  147. Which types of law are:
    constitutional legislative, and common law
  148. the most common claim in a health care facility is
    false imprisonment
  149. the process of monitoring and evaluating the quality of the care and services provided to patients in a health care facility is called:
    quality management
  150. a/an  ___ occurs when a patient believes that he or she has been threatened in such a way that the person has reason to fear or expect immediate bodily harm
  151. Health records are stored as:
    all of the above
  152. For medicolegal reasons, radiographic images are required to include all the following information except
    the patient's birht date
  153. A radiographer who discloses confidential information to unauthorized individuals could be found guilty of
    invasion of privacy
  154. generally accepted customs of right living and conduct and an individual's practice of these customs is called:
  155. the standard set by members of profession is called:
  156. A/an ____ is a patient's claim that he or she has been wronged
  157. the internal controls of a profession based on human values or moral principles is called:
    professional ethics
  158. select the ethical principle described by actions that benefit others
  159. the health record is used to:
    all of the above
  160. The ethical theory that emphasizes the agents who perform actions and make choices is called:
    virtue-based ethics
  161. select the ethical principle described by acts that ensure the fair distribution of goods and the righting of wrongs
  162. each of these is a component of ethical analysis except:
    informing the patient
  163. the legal doctrine respondeat superior means which of the following?
    let the master answer
  164. the use of moral principles as a basis for defending a chosen path of action in resolving an ethical dilemma is called:
    principle-based ethics
  165. The standards for maintenance and adequacy of health records are established by the:
  166. Failure to use such care as a reasonably prudent person would use in like or similar situations is called:
  167. which term applies when a patient is injured through no fault of his or her own while in the complete control of another?
    res ipsa loquitur
  168. which type of law defines individual rights?
  169. select the ethical principle described by actions that respect the independence of other people
  170. select the ethical principle described as being truthful is right
  171. the theory of ____ requires the hospital or health care entity to be responsible for the quality of care delivered to consumers.
    coporate liability
  172. select the ethical principle described by "above all do no harm"
  173. select the ethical principle described by acts of loyalty and faithfulness to others
  174. facsimile transmission of health information is:
    permitted for urgently needed patient care, permitted for third party payer hospitalization certification
  175. you are working in the outpatient department and recieve a patient who is complaining of pain in the right hip joint; however, the requisition asks for a left femur examination. what should you do?
    check with the referring physician
  176. which of the following must be included in a patient's chart?
    diagnostic and therapeutic orders, medical history, informed consent
  177. if a radiographer performed a lumbar spine examination on a patient who was supposed to have an elbow examination, which of the following charges may be brought against the radiographer?
  178. a radiographer can be found guilty of a tort in which of the following situations?
    failure to shield a patient of childbearing age from unnecessary radiation, performing an examination on a patient who has refused the examination, discussing a patient's condition with a third party
  179. if a radiographer writes a requisition "This patient is crazy" the radiographer could be charged with:
  180. the law that governs that an adult of sound mind has the right to make decisions about what is done to their own body was established in what court case?
    scholendorf vs. society of new york hospital in 1914
  181. belief that actions themselves, rather than consequences, determine the worth of actions; actions are right or wrong according to the morality of the acts themselves is called:
  182. the health insurance portability and accountability act of 1996 (HIPPA) legislation affects radiology and other hospital departments by its focus on
    patient record confidentiality
  183. the ARRT has a published code of ethcis
  184. the process of ethical analysis has several components
  185. health information departments affect hospital operations
  186. the original copy of the health record is taken to court
  187. errors made in documentation are corrected by the medical transcriptionist
  188. hospitals have the right to charge a fee for copied radiographs
  189. informed consent forms from the radiology department are not part of the health record
  190. a radiographer may be called to testify in a legal case
  191. information obtained directly from the patient through observation does not need to be kept confidential
  192. radiology reports are included in the health record
  193. a radiologic technologist is free to share a diagnosis with a patient
  194. health information departments are support service departments
  195. the standard of care for radiologic technology was established in 1914 and remains intact today
  196. a patient has the right to be informed of and to make decisions about his or her own health care treatment
  197. radiologic technologists have an obligation to maintain patient confidentiality
  198. respondeat superior translates to "the thing speaks for itself"
  199. health care providers who do not remain current in the field may be liable under the legal theory of medical malpractice
  200. a person must be  informed of the reason for restraint and the possible risks if restraints are not used after the restraints have been applied
  201. the ARRT code of ethics provides the radiologic technologist with an operational blueprint of laws of professional conduct
  202. all department that take part in the care of a patient must document that care in the health record
  203. only a patient has access to his or her health care record
  204. informed consent requires that patients have all the information they need to make decisions about their health care
  205. before a radiographic procedure is performed, a radiology order must be obtained
  206. radiologic technologists are legally liable for their actions in the daily performance of diagnostic procedures
  207. an authorization for treatment, signed at admission, is an informed consent form.
  208. patients have the right to amend thier health record
  209. approximately 90% of all medical negligence claims are somehow related to diagnostic imaging.
  210. student radiologic technologists bear no responsibility for patient confidentially
  211. the radiologic technologist should allow the patient to examine his or her health record while in the radiology department
  212. the general definition of the standard of care is that the degree of skill, knowledge, and care ordinarily posessessed and employed by a member of the profession in good standing
  213. in some states, patients must give their physician permission to testify in court
  214. when a patient has an x-ray taken at a hospital that x-ray film belongs to the patient can be taken with them as soon as they are finished if the patient likes
  215. the patients health record is a legal document
  216. competence, charting, and confidentiality are part of malpractice prevention
  217. if a patient revokes consent in the middle of a procedure you should stop the procedure when it is safe to do so.
  218. 3 types of consent
    • written
    • oral
    • implied
Card Set
Foundations Final
rad tech foundations final study cards