PSYC 320 Lesson 2

  1. A research question differs from a hypothesis because it:
    doesn't involve a prediction
  2. What are some examples of research methods?
    • - structured observation
    • - clinical interview
    • - naturalistic observation
  3. An example of a research design is a:
    field experiment
  4. What is a limitation of a case study?
    findings cannot be applied to individuals other than the participant
  5. Observation of behavior in a laboratory is a description of:
    structured observation
  6. One limitation of ______ is that observations may not be typical of the way participants behave in everyday life.
    structured observations
  7. What approach can easily be converted to a test or questionnaire?
    structured interview
  8. What is a frequently used psychophysiological method?
    measures of autonomic nervous system activity
  9. Ethnography's main purpose is to study:
  10. The consistency, or repeatability, of measures of behavior best defines:
  11. Correlational designs do not permit:
    inference about cause and effect
  12. A certain study attempts to relate prosocial activity with church attendance. This would be a ______ design.
  13. In an experimental study, the experimenter typically manipulates the _____ variable.
  14. In an experimental study, the experimenter typically attempts to show causality by measuring the ______ variable.
  15. A natural experiment is best defined as:
    a research design in which the investigator studies already existing treatments in natural settings by carefully selecting groups of participants with similar characteristics
  16. Failure to select participants who are representative of the population of interest in a study best defines:
    biased sampling
  17. Cross-sectional designs are frequently used...
    because they are an efficient strategy for describing age-related trends
  18. What are advantages of the longitudinal-sequential design?
    • - it controls cohort effects
    • - it makes longitudinal and cross-sectional comparisons
    • - the design is efficient
  19. One reason debriefing is different from informed consent is...
    debriefing is used when the research involves deception
  20. Validity
    whether or not the research reflects what it was intended to measure
  21. reliability
    involves assessing whether the patterns and themes identified by the researcher are grounded in evidence and are plausible
  22. correlational design
    • - examines relationships between variables without altering the people's experiences
    • - do not permit cause-and-effect inferences
    • - used when it is difficult or impossible to control the variables of interest
  23. correlational coefficient
    measures the association between variables
  24. experimental design
    • - permits cause and effect inferences
    • - independent variable is manipulated by exposing groups of participants to two or more treatment conditions
    • - random assignment and matching
  25. confounding variables
    reduce the internal validity of experimental findings
  26. laboratory experiments
    • - achieve a high degree of control
    • - findings may not apply to everyday life
    • - less precise and rigorous than true experimental design
  27. field experiment
    researchers randomly assign participants to treatment conditions in the real world
  28. natural/quasi experiments
    compare existing treatments involving groups of people whose characteristics are much alike
  29. longitudinal design
    • - participants are studied repeatedly at different ages
    • - used to identify common patterns and individual differences in development
    • - used to find the relationship between early and later events and behaviors
  30. problems with longitudinal design
    • - biased sampling
    • - selective attribution
    • - practice effects
    • - changes in accepted theories and methods during long term studies
    • - validity threatened by cohort effects
  31. cohort effects
    difficulty generalizing to children growing up during different time periods
  32. cross-sectional design
    - groups of participants differing in age are studied at the same time
  33. benefits and problems of cross-sectional design
    benefit: avoids problems of selective attention, practice effects, theoretical and methodological changes in field

    problems: limited to comparisons of age-group averages; can be threatened by cohort effects
  34. sequential design
    • - allows researchers to test for cohort effects
    • - makes longitudinal and cross-sectional comparisons
    • - gathers information about developmental efficiency
  35. microgenetic design
    - researchers track change as it occurs to gain insights into processes of development
  36. problems with microgenetic design
    • - time required for children to change is hard to anticipate
    • - practice effects can bias findings
  37. Structured observation
    the investigator sets up a laboratory situation that evokes the behavior of interest so that every participant has an equal opportunity to display the response
  38. problems and benefits of structured observations
    Benefits: gives all children same opportunity to display behaviors

    Problems: not always representative of everyday, true life
  39. specimen record
    • - an observation on the child's behavior or development
    • - may be natural and accurate but less controlled
    • - may be controlled but less accurate
    • - can be quick but is then limited with a small amount of data
    • - can be long but is then more general with a wide amount of data
  40. event sampling
    an observational procedure in which the researcher records all instances of a particular behavior during a specified time period
  41. strengths and weaknesses of event sampling
    • Strength:
    • - efficient due to information on only one or a few kinds of behavior being needed
    • - can be used to study infrequent behaviors
    • - notes antecedents and consequences of behavior

    • Weaknesses:
    • - focus on only one or a few behaviors
    • - does not have as much detail as running record
  42. time sampling
    researcher records whether certain behaviors occur during a sample of short intervals
  43. strengths and weaknesses of time sampling
    stregths: efficient, quick

    weakness: short time period so all behaviors might not be observed
  44. clinical interviews
    interview method in which the researcher uses a flexible, conversational style to probe for the participant's point of view
  45. strengths and weaknesses of clinical interviews
    • strengths:
    • - very close to how participants think in every day life
    • - greath breadth and depth of information can be obtained in a short time

    • weakness:
    • - may not be an accurate reporting of info
    • - flexible procedure makes comparing difficult
  46. structured interview
    interview method in which each participant is asked the same questions in the same way
  47. strengths and weaknesses of structured interviews
    • strengths:
    • - permits comparisons of responses
    • - efficient data collection
    • - researchers can specify answer alternatives that may not be thought of in an open ended interview

    • weakness:
    • - does not yield same depth of information as a clinical interview
    • - responses are subject to inaccurate reporting
  48. definition of psychophysiological methods
    • - research methods that measure relationship between physiological processes and behavior
    • - measures of autonomic nervous system
    • - measures of brain funcitoning
  49. examples of psychophysiological methods
    • - EEG
    • - ERP
    • - fMRI
    • - PET
    • - NIROT
  50. EEG
    • - electroencephalogram
    • - researchers examine brain wave patterns for stability and organization (signs of mature functioning of the cortex)
  51. ERP
    • - event related potentials
    • - detects the general location of cortical activity when a child processes a particular stimulus
    • - used to study pre-verbal infants' responsiveness to various stimuli
    • - used to study impact of experience on development of regions of cerebral cortex
    • - used to study atypical brain functioning in children at risk for learning and emotional problems
  52. Neuroimaging techniques
    • - yield detailed, three-dementional computerized pictures of the enitre brain and its active areas
    • - provides most precise information about which brain regions are specialized for certain capacities and about abnormalities in brain funcitoning
  53. fMRI
    • - functional magnetic resonance imaging
    • - child lies in tunnel-like apparatus
    • - detects increases in blood flow and oxygen metabolism throughout the brain magnetically
    • - yields colorful and moving picture parts of the brain used to perform a given activity
    • - not suitable for infants and young children (required to remain as motionless as possible)
  54. PET
    • - pasitron emission tomography
    • - uses x-ray photography
    • - requires injection of a radioactive substance
    • - not suitable for infants and young children (required to remain as motionless as possible)
  55. NIROT
    • - near infrared optical topography
    • - new brain imaging method that works well in infancy and early childhood
    • - infrared light is beamed at regions of cerebral cortex
    • - measures blood flow and oxygen metabolism while child attends to a stimulus
  56. method used to study culture
    • ethnographic method
    • - entering into close contact with social group
    • - researchers can understand the beliefs and behaviors of its members in a way not possible in interview or questionnaire
  57. reliability
    the consistency, or reatability, of measures of behavior
  58. validity
    the extent to which methods in a research study accurately measure what the investigator set out to measure
  59. internal validity
    the degree to which conditions internal to the design of the study permit an accurate test of the researcher's hypothesis or question
  60. external validity
    the degree to which their findings generalize to settings and participants outside of the original study
  61. correlational design
    • - research design in which investigator gathers information on individuals without altering their experiences
    • - then examines relationships between participants' characteristics and their behavior or development
    • - does not permit inferences about cause and effect
    • - used when the instances and conditions of interest are difficult or impossible to arrange and control and must be studies as they currently exist
  62. how is a correlational coefficient interpretted?
    • - a number, ranging from +1.00 to -1.00
    • - describes the strength and direction of the relationship between two variables
  63. independent variable
    • - the variable the researcher expects to cause changes in another variable in an experiment
    • - manipulated when researcher exposes participants to the treatment conditions
  64. dependent variable
    • - the variable the researcher expects to be influenced by the independent variable in an experiment
    • - manipulated as it changes as controls the independent variable
  65. field experiment
    researchers capitalize on opportunities to randomly assign participants to treatment conditions in natural settings
  66. strengths and weaknesses of field experiment
    • strengths:
    • - permits generalization of experimental findings to the real world

    • weakness:
    • - control over the treatment is generally weaker than in a laboratory experiment
  67. natural experiment
    the investigator compares already existing treatments in the real world, carefully selecting groups of participants to ensure that their characteristics are as much alike as possible
  68. strengths and weaknesses of natural experiments
    strengths: permits study of many real-world conditions that cannot be experimentally manipulated

    weaknesses: findings may be due to variables other than the treatment
  69. longitudinal study
    • - participants studied repeatedly at different ages
    • - time span ranges from a few months to a lifetime
  70. strengths and weaknesses of longitudinal study
    • strengths:
    • - researchers can identify common patterns as well as individual differences in development
    • - permits investigators to examine relationships between early and later events and behaviors

    • weakness:
    • - biased sampling
    • - samples become more biased as investigation proceeds
    • - participants' experience can interfere with studies' validity
    • - cultural historical change
  71. biased sampling
    failure to select participants who are representative of the population of interest in a study
  72. selective attrition
    selective loss of participants during an investigation, resulting in biased sample
  73. practice effects
    changes in participants' natural responses as a result of repeated testing
  74. cohort effects
    the effects of cultural-historical change on the accuracy of longitudinal and cross-sectional findings
  75. cross-sectional study
    • groups of participants of different ages are studied at the same point in time
    • - avoid problems such as selective attrition, practice effects, or changes in the field that might make the findings obsolete
    • - efficient for describing age-related trends
  76. sequential design
    investigators conduct several similar cross-sectional or longitudinal studies at varying times
  77. risk vs. benefits ratio
    • a comparison of the costs of a research study to participants in terms of inconvenience and possible psychological or physical injury against the study's value for advancing knowledge and improving conditions of life
    • - used in assessing the ethics of research
  78. informed consent
    the right of research participants, including children, to have explained to them, in a language they can understand, all aspects of a study that might affect their willingness to participate
  79. debriefing
    providing a full account and justification of research activities to participants in a study in which deception was used
  80. what are the specific rights of children used in research experiments?
    • - protection from harm
    • - informed consent
    • - privacy
    • - knowledge of results
    • - beneficial treatments
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PSYC 320 Lesson 2
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