1. Psychology
    is the science of behavior and mental processes.
  2. biological perspective
    a research perspective whose major explanatory focus is how the brain, nervous system, and other physiological mechanisms produce behavior and mental processes.
  3. Cognitive Perspective
    a research perspective whose major explanatory focus is how mental processes, such as perception, memory, and problem solving, work and impact behavior.
  4. behavioral perspective
    a research perspective whose major explanatory focus is how external environmental events condition observable behavior.
  5. sociocultural perspective
    a research perspective whose major explantory focus is how other people and the cultrural context impact behavior and mental processes
  6. hindsight bias ( i knew it all along)
    The tendency, after learning about an outcome, to be overconfident in one's ability to have predicited it.
  7. descriptive methods
    research methods whose main purpose is to provide objective and detailed descriptions of behavior and mental processes
  8. naturalistic observation
    a descriptive research method in which the behavior of interest is observed in its natural setting, and the researcher does not intervene in the behavior being observed.
  9. participant observation
    a descriptive research method in which the observer becomes part of the group being observed.
  10. case study
    a descriptive research method in which the researcher studies an individual in depth over an extended period of time
  11. survey research
    a descriptive research method in which the researcher uses questionnaires and interviews to collect info about the behavior, beliefs, and attitudes of particular groups of people.
  12. population
    the entire group of people that a researcher is studying
  13. sample
    the subset of a population that actually particpates in a research study.
  14. random sampling
    a sampling technique that obtains a represtative sample of a population by ensuring that each individual in a population has an equal opportuntiy to be in the sample
  15. correlational study
    a research study in which two variables are measured to determine if they are related
  16. variable
    any factor that can take on more than one value.
  17. correlation coefficient
    a statistic that tells us the type and the strength  of the relationship between two variable.
  18. positive correlation
    a direct relationship between two variables
  19. negative correlation
    an iverse relationship between two variables.
  20. scatterplot
    a visual depiction of correlational data in which each data point represents the scores on the two variables for each participant
  21. third variable problem
    an explanation of a correlatation between two variables in terms of another variable that could possibly be responsible for the observed relationship between the two variables.
  22. random assigment
    a control measurue in which participants are randomly assigned to groups in order to equalize participant characteristics across the various groups in an experiment.
  23. independent variable
    in an experiment, the variable that is a hypothesized cause and thus is manipulated by the experimenter.
  24. dependent variable
    in an experimentt, a variable that is hypothesized to be affected by the indendent variable and thus is measured by the experimenter
  25. experiment
    a research method in which the researcher manipulates one or more independent variables and measures their effect on one or more dependent variables while controlling other potentially reievent variables.
  26. experimental group
    in an experiment the group exposed to the independent variable
  27. control group
    in a experiment the group not exposed to the independent variable.
  28. operational definiton
    a description of the operations or procedures that a reseacher uses to manipulate or measure a variable
  29. placebo effect
    improvement due to the expectation of improving because of receiving treatment.
  30. placbebo group
    a control group of participants who believe they are receiving trements, but who are only receiving a placebo.
  31. placebo
    an inactive pill or a treatment that has no known effects.
  32. inferretial statistical analyses
    statistical analyses that allow researches to draw conclusions about the results of a study by determining the probability the results are due to random variations. The results are statistically significant if this probability is .05 or less
  33. meta-analysis
    a statistical technique that combines the results of a large number of studies on one experimental question into one analysis to arrive at an overall conclusion.
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