What is the measurement of the amount of energy that could be acquired from nutrient molecules?
6 Categories of Nutrients
What nutrients produce energy?
What are essential nutrients and how are they obtained?
Essential nutrients are ones that an animal cannot manufacture.
They must be obtained in the diet.
Functions of Water (4)
- Lubricant for body tissues
- Transport Medium
- Chemical Reactant in Digestion
- Temperature Regulation
Carbohydrates are divided into what 3 categories?
- 1. Sugar
- 2. Starches
- 3. Cellulose
Glucose is readily used to make ATP through a process called?
What organ is more sensitive to glucose levels?
4 Major Categories of Lipids:
- 1. Neutral Fats
- 2. Phospholipids
- 3. Steroids
- 4. Other (vitamins A, D, E, and K, Eicosanoids, and Lipoproteins)
Neutral fats are also called?
They are solid or liquid based on what 2 factors?
- 1. the length of the fatty acid chains
- 2. the degree of saturation with hydrogen atoms within the chains
Name of the neutral fat if it is a:
Liquid=Unsaturated (ore or more double bonds between carbon atoms)
Solid=Saturated (single bonds between carbon atoms)
Name an essential fatty acid that must be available in the diet?
Where is it found?
- Found in most vegetable oils
What are the building blocks of proteins?
What are they composed of?
- Amino Acids
- They are composed of: Amine Group (NH2) and Organic Acid Group
Describe what Nitrogen Balance is and what happens when it is positive or negitive.
It is the rate of protein synthesis equals the rate of protein breakdown or loss in the healthy animal.
Positive Balance: occurs when body is incorporating more protein into tissues than it is breaking down to make energy (ATP)
Negative Balance: occurs when protein breakdown exceeds the amount of protein being incorporated into tissues
Identify Fat Soluble and Water Soluble Vitamins.
What makes them different?
- Fat Soluble= A, D, E, and K
- Water Soluble= B and C
- Fat soluble vitamins bind to ingest lipids before they are absorbed with ingesta.
- Water soluble vitamins are absorbed through the gut wall when water is absorbed in the GI tract.
3 Classifications of Minerals
What are they classified by?
- 1. Macro minerals
- 2. Micro minerals
- 3. Trace Elements
Classified by how much of them is required by the body.
Cell Metabolism is divided into what 2 categories?
- 1. Catabolism
- 2. Anabolism
process that involves breaking down nutrients into smaller molecules to produce energy
process in which stored energy is used to assemble new molecules from the small components that are produced from catabolism
Name and define the 3 stages of Catabolic Metabolism:
- 1. Gastrointestinal Tract (through the process of hydrolysis protein is broken down into amino acids)
- 2. Cytosol (anaerobic repiration in the cytosol produces acetyl Coh, which carries a lot of energy derived from food)
- 3. Mitochondria (energy producing factory, form ATP)
Is energy produced or used during anabolic process?
What is an example of anabolism?
- Energy is USED during anabolic process.
- ex: when cells grow, additional proteins are needed for the expanded cell membrane
What is a substrate and what is a product?
Each enzyme reacts with a particular molecule called a SUBSTRATE to produce a new molecule called a PRODUCT.
What is an enzyme?
Enzymes are globular proteins that consist of one or more flexible polypeptide chains.
3 Characteristics of an Enzyme
- 1. The basic function is to increase the rate of a reaction.
- 2. Most enzymes act specifically with only one reactant (substrate).
- 3. Enzymes are regulated from a state of low activity to high activity and vice versa.
What part of carbohydrate metabolism occurs in the cytoplasm?
What part of the carbohydrate metabolism occurs in the mitochondria?
krebs cycle and electron transport chain
Cellular respiration is composed of what 2 parts?
- 1. Anaerobic Glycolysis
- 2. Aerobic Respiration
What is Transamination?
The process of amino group transfer to other amino acids or within the same compound.
What is deamination?
The process during catabolism in which the amino group NH2 is removed.