PSYC 320 Lesson 1

  1. Developmental psychology is most concerned with:
    describing changes throughout the lifespan
  2. What is a limitation of theories?
    They are influenced by cultural values and belief systems.
  3. What is the key difference between continuous and discontinuous development?
    discontinuous development assumes that people develop new ways of interpreting and responding to the world at different times, whereas continuous development assumes people cumulatively add more of the same type of skills
  4. Discontinuous development is most concerned with:
    developmental stages
  5. The "nature" side of the nature vs. nurture debate assumes that:
    children are conceived with certain biological characteristics that determine their development
  6. What view of children did the Reformation promote?
    the idea of original sin and focused on the need to civilize children
  7. The idea of "tabula rasa" is best described by saying that:
    children are born with nothing and have to be shaped as they grow
  8. Rousseau wrote a book in which a young girl drowns because she will not remove the clothes that prevent her from swimming ashore. This is typical of his theories because:
    adult training has corrupted her into thinking modestly is more important than self preservation
  9. You can infer from Rousseau's concept of "the noble savage" that:
    if parents are receptive to their children's needs and allow them to develop naturally, the children will be better people that their parents because they have not been corrupted by society
  10. Darwin viewed change in organisms as a product of:
    greater reproduction by those who adapt the best
  11. The view that certain species were selected by nature to survive is best explained by:
    Darwin's idea of natural selection
  12. The normative approach:
    • - attempts to describe average or typical behavior
    • - may neglect to show the range of behavior
    • - may create concerns in parents whose children are not typical
  13. What is a key difference between the ego and superego?
    the ego is the conscious, rational part of the mind and the superego, or conscience, insists a person conforms with the values of society
  14. People criticized Freud because:
    • - he developed theories of child development without studying children directly
    • - he emphasized the role of sexual feelings in development
    • - he studied well-to-do, sexually repressed adults, so his ideas don't apply as well to other cultures
  15. One similarity between the ideas of Locke and Freud is that:
    parents are responsible for teaching their children to act in socially approriate ways
  16. According to Eriksonian theory, a sense of trust and security develops in the:
    first year of life
  17. Operant conditioning stresses that learning is a product of:
  18. The most influential of the social learning theories was developed by:
  19. Social learning theory stresses that much important learning occurs through:
    watching models
  20. Piaget's stage of cognitive development that occurs from 2 to 7 years is:
  21. Information-processing theorists focus mostly on:
    how information is encoded and stored
  22. Which of the following is not a strength of the information processing theory?
    nonlinear cognitive skills, such as imagination and creativity, are taken into account
  23. An approach concerned with the adaptive, or survival, value of behavior and its evolutionary history is:
  24. What is the key difference between Vygotsky's theory and Piaget's theory?
    Vygotsky believed that when children learn new tasks, they depend on adults and more mature peers
  25. Vygotsky's theory is dialectical because it is a synthesis between the ideas that:
    parents ultimately influence what children become, and children's active, independent efforts to make sense of their world, determine what children become
  26. An approach which views the child as developing within a complex system of relationships affected by multiple levels of the surrounding environment is:
    the ecological systems theory
  27. According to Bronfenbrenner, the nuclear family would be part of the:
  28. The theory that views the child's mind, body, and physical and social worlds as an integrated system is the:
    dynamic systems perspective
  29. What is a key difference between Freud and Erikson?
    The ego also develops attitudes and skills that help a person become an active, contributing member of whatever unique society that he/she belongs to.
  30. Practical applicaitons for changing child behavior can be most easily derived from _______ theory.
  31. Three domains of child development
    • - physical
    • - cognitive
    • - emotional and social
  32. Five periods of child development
    • - prenatal period (conception to birth)
    • - infancy to toddlerhood (birth to 2 yrs)
    • - early childhood (2 to 6 yrs)
    • - middle childhood (6 to 11 yrs)
    • - adolescence (11 to 18 yrs)
  33. Hall and Gesell
    • - introduced normative approach
    • - produced large body of descriptive facts about children
    • - came soon after efforts to observe children directly began (late 19th and early 20th centuries with baby biographies)
  34. the Puritan conception and the Enlightenment
    Puritan conception: original sin led to a harsh philosophy of child rearing

    the Enlightenment: brought more humane ideas about treatment of children
  35. Binet and Simon
    • - constructed first successful intelligence test
    • - sparked interest in individual differences in development
    • - led to heated controversy over nature vs. nurture
  36. Baldwin's Theory
    • - ahead of its time
    • - granted nature and nurture equal importance
    • - regarded children and their social surroundings as mutually influential
  37. Issues regarding the study of development
    • - continuous vs. discontinuous
    • - nature vs. nurture
    • - one general course of development vs. many possible courses depending on context in which child grows up
  38. How are theories harmful?
    • - no ultimate truth because investigators do not always agree on what they see
    • - no single theory can incorporate and explain all aspects of children
  39. Continuous Development
    a process of gradually adding more of the same types of skills that were there to begin with
  40. Discontinuous Development
    a process in which new ways of understanding and responding to the world emerge at specific times
  41. Stability
    children who are high or low in a characteristic will remain so at later ages
  42. Change
    characteristics are open to change throughout life
  43. Nature
    genetic factors - inborn biological givens, hereditary information we receive from our parents at the moment of conception
  44. Nurture
    environmental factors - the complex forces of the physical and social world that influence our biological makeup and psychological experiences before and after birth
  45. tabula rasa
    Locke's view of the child as a "blank slate" whose character is shaped by experience
  46. Rousseau
    • - described children as noble savages, naturally endowed with a sense of right and wrong and with an innate plan for orderly, healthy growth
    • - concepts of stage and maturation
  47. Stage
    a qualitative change in thinking, feeling, and behaving that characterizes a specific period of development
  48. Maturation
    a genetically determined, naturally unfolding course of growth
  49. Darwin
    • - viewed infinite variation among plant and animal species
    • - no two individuals are exactly alike
    • - natural selection and survival of the fittest
    • - stimulated scientific child study
    • - emphasized adaptive value of physical and behavioral characteristics
    • - was attacked by those who believed (because of their religion) that evolution was inaccurate
  50. Normative Approach
    measures of behavior are taken on large numbers of individuals and age-related averages are computed to represent typical development
  51. Id, Ego and Superego

    Id: the largest portion of the mind as the source of basic biological needs

    Ego: the conscious, rational part of personality, emerges in early infancy to redirect the id's impulses so they are discharged in acceptable ways

    Superego: conscience - develops between ages 3 and 6, develops through interactions with parents, who insist that children conform to the values of society
  52. Classical Conditioning
    • - a form of learning that involves associating a neutral stimulus with a stimulus that leads to a reflexive response
    • - when nervous system makes connection between two stimuli, new stimulus will produce behavior by itself
  53. Operant Conditioning
    a form of learning in which a spontaneous behavior is followed by stimulus that changes the probability that the behavior will occur again
  54. Social Learning Theory
    a theory that emphasizes the role of modeling, otherwise known as imitaiton or observational learning, in the development of behavior
  55. Jean Piaget
    • - did not believe children's learning depends on reinforcers, such as rewards from adults
    • - children actively construct knowledge as they manipulate and explore their world
  56. Information Processing Theory
    the human mind might also be viewed as a symbol-manipulating system through which information flows
  57. Ethology
    an approach concerned with the adaptive, or survival, value of behavior and its evolutionary history - behavior patterns that promote survival
  58. the critical period
    limited time during which the child is biologically prepared to acquire certain adaptive behaviors but needs the support of an appropriately stimulating environment
  59. Dialectic
    • The process that involves the thesis (an original idea or concept), antithesis (a challenging idea or concept) and synthesis (a creative combining of the thesis and the
    • antithesis)
  60. Bronfenbrenner's four systems
    • - microsystem
    • - mesosystem
    • - exosystem
    • - macrosystem
  61. Microsystem
    • - the innermost level of the environment
    • - consists of activities and interaction patterns in the child's immediate surroundings
  62. Mesosystem
    • - the second level of the environment
    • - encompasses connections between microsystems
    • - home, school, neighborhood, child-care center
  63. Exosystem
    • - consists of social settings that do not contain children but that nevertheless affect children's experiences in immediate settings
    • - formal organizations, religious institutions, health and welfare services
  64. Macrosystem
    • - the outermost level
    • - consists of cultural values, laws, customs and resources
  65. Dynamic systems perspective
    • - a child's mind, body and physical and social worlds form an integrated system that guides mastery of new skills
    • - system is dynamic, consistently in motion
    • - change in any part, disrupts the current organism
    • - child actively reorganizes behavior to put all the components together in a complex and effective way
  66. Psychoanalytic Perspective
    • - discontinuous
    • - one course of development
    • - both nature and nurture
  67. Behaviorism and social learning theory
    • - continuous
    • - many possible courses of development
    • - emphasis on nurture
  68. Cognitive-developmental Theory
    • Piaget
    • - discontinuous
    • - one course of development
    • - both nature and nurture
  69. Information Processing
    • - continuous
    • - one course of development
    • - both nature and nurture
  70. Ethology and Evolutionary Developmental Psychology
    • - continuous and discontinuous
    • - one course of development
    • - both nature and nurture
  71. Socioculture Theory
    • Vygotsky
    • - continuous and discontinuous
    • - many possible courses of development
    • - both nature and nurture
  72. Ecological systems theory
    • - many possible courses of development
    • - nature and nurture
  73. Dynamic Systems Perspective
    • - continuous and discontinuous
    • - many possible courses of development
    • - nature and nurture
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PSYC 320 Lesson 1
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