What is the complete-formula oral rehydration solution?
1/2 teaspoon of NaCl, 1/4 teaspoon of KCL, 1/2 teaspoon of Bicarb, 2 tablespoons of glucose and 1 liter of water
What microbes adhere to the tip of the villi?
EPEC, Cryptosporium spp., Giardia spp., Rotavirus and Notovirus
What microbes adhere to the crypt of the villi?
V. cholera, ETEC
Which microbe causes effacement of the villi?
True or false. Non-inflammatory diarrhea usually involves the upper small bowel, results from production of an enterotoxin, and may result from other processes which alter absorptive function of the the villus tip.
True or false. Non-inflammatory diarrhea contains leukocutes in the stool.
False, non-inflammatory diarrhea does not contain leukocytes in the stool, but inflammatory diarrhea does.
Which diarrheal disease mechanism involves invasion of the GI mucosa and/or production of cytotoxins and involves the colon?
Which 2 diarrheal infections present with N/V, absence of fever, and upper abdominal symptoms?
Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus
Which 8 diarrheal infections present with N/V, large volumes of watery stools, and absence of fever or low grade fever?
1) V. cholera
3) B. cereus
4) C. perfringens
5) G. lamblia
Which 6 diarrheal infections present with colon involvement, smaller volume frequent stools, tenesmus, fever, abdominal cramps, bloody stools, and leukocytes in stools?
4) V. parahemolyticus
6) Entamoeba histolytica
Which 2 diarrheal infections present with systemic illness with toxicity, prostration, high fever, with little or absence of diarrhea?
1) Typhoid fever
2) Non-typhoidal Salmonella bacteremias
Which 2 diarrheal infections are usually acquired in a hospital setting?
C. difficile, Rotavirus
Which 4 diarrheal infections are usually acquired in day-care centers?
1) Shigella spp.
3) Giardia spp.
4) Cryptosporidium spp.
Which 4 diarrheal infections are usually associated with Traveler's Diarrhea?
2) Giardia lamblia
3) Salmonella spp.
4) Shigella spp.
Which pathogen is known for causing renal failure in children and is more common in developed countries?
Which of the following diarrheal infections can be diagnosed in a routine lab?
H. EHEC (with sorbitol (-) organisms on SMAC agar)
F. Salmonella ((+) stool)
G. Shigella ((+) stool)
H. Cholera ((+) stool)
I. Campylobacter (microaerophilic atmosphere and 42 degrees Celsius with (+) stool culture)
J. C. difficile (tissue assay or EIA/PCR of stool sample)
K. Norovirus (immune electron microscopy, RT-PCR
L. Rotavirus (immune electron microscopy, ELISA on stool sample)
M. Giardia lamblia ((+) stool for cysts)
Routine cultures should always include _____, _____, and _____.