Which immunization type is passed from mother to fetus?
What are the 4 mechanisms of immunization protection?
1) Secondary response
2) Acquired immunity
3) Age of immunization
4) Herd immunity
Match the following.
1. Secondary response
2. Acquired immunity
3. Age of immunization
4. Herd immunity
A. May function in concert with innate defenses
B. Vaccination of a significant proportion of the population which protects non-immune individuals
C. Affected by circulating maternal Ab
D. Is rapid
What are 3 key features of a "good" vaccine?
1) Induce right type of immune response
2) Induce memory
3) Are stable and inexpensive
What are 2 characteristics of live attenuated vaccines?
1) repeated passage or have cold adaption
2) induce native response
What are the 2 risks associated with live attenuated vaccines?
1) there is a risk of reversion back to wild type
2) contraindicated with immunocompromised patients and/or newborns
When are "killed" vaccines typically used?
When the risk for reversion is too high
Give an example of a "killed" vaccine.
True or false. "Killed" vaccines are less stable than attenuated vaccines but are more immunogenic.
False, "killed" vaccines are more stable than attenuated vaccines but are less immunogenic.
What are subcellular vaccines and give an example.
They are an isolated component of a pathogen that is used to induce immunity. Tetanus toxoid is an example.
Why do capsular polysaccahrides need to be conjugated to toxoids? Give an exmaple.
Induce poor response; Pneumococcus capsule conjugated to tetanus or diptheria toxoid is an example.
Match the following.
1. Experimental vaccines
2. Recombinant vaccines
A. Plasmid with foreign gene is inserted into plasmid DNA
B. Recombinat vector is assembled into new vaccine virus particles
C. Engineered bacterial or viral strains expressing antigens
D. DNA vaccines designed to encode immunogenic protein in host cell
1. C, D
2. A, B
Which 3 viruses grow better in the cold with regards to the preparation methods for live attenuated vaccines?
Influenza, respiratory syncytial, rotavirus
Which 5 viruses have multiple passages with regards to the preparation methods for live attenuated vaccines?