What are the 3 defense systems of the body?
- normal body functions (skin, saliva, mucous, etc)
- inflammatory response
- immune response- forming agents to go kill/destroy/contain the invader
What is immunity?
resistance to or protection from an individuals environment
What is an internal chemical system whose purpose is to enhance reactivity to material that us foreign to the body?
- born with immunity
- vaccines/already having the diease
What is an antigen?
material recognized as foreign by the immunologic system
How does the immune system recognize antigens?
by producing antibodies specific for each antigen
What are antibodies derived from?
What type of lymphocytes originate from lymph tissue in alimentary tract or bone marrow?
- major defense of bacteria
- specific to each target antibody
What keeps the immunity system in balance?
What makes antibodies?
Where do T cells originate from?
major protector against virus's and fungi
What are the little informants that figure out what the antigen is and tells the B cells what antibodies to make?
What are T-suppressor cells?
- keep the B's in check
- dont let B cells produce too much
What cells are really strong, and go out and directly kill antigens?
cytotoxic T cells
What are natural killer cells?
- not B or T
- go directly kill antigens
- defense against cancer
What is the immune process?
- antigen is broken down by macrophages
- then presented to T cells
- will either:
- *program a group of B cells to produce antibody with T helpers
- *suppression of production of antibody with T cells
- *directly kill
What is an immunoglobulin?
- plasma proteins that contain antibodies
- once antibodies are formed, they circulate in plasma
What are the 5 classes of immunogobulins?
What immunoglobulin is secreated in body fluids (tears, saliva, mucosal tracts:bronchi, intestinal)?
- interact with antigens before they get to the tissues and cause damage
What is IgG?
- transmitted from mom to placenta to baby
- gets in babys system, and then baby is protected for first 6 months against diseases mom has alread had
What immunologobulin fights against bacteria that enters the blood system, and is very large?
What is IgE?
defends the respiratory tract and released histamines to fight-> makes us snotty
What immunoglobulin is found in serum, and it is not sure what they do?
What is type 1: anaphylactic-atopic allergy?
- immediate reaction to antigen the person has already become exposed to
- mediated by IgE
hay fever, environmental (asbestos), food allergies
What is type2: cytotoxic-type hypersensitivity?
- IgG's and IgM's
- reaction to transfusion
- erythroblastosis fetalis (poke babies foot and test RH factor to be sure blood is compatible)
- myasthenia gravis (immune diease, body is attacking itself, antibodies are attacking neurotransmitters, lots of weakness/atrophy-juice isnt getting to the brain)
What is type 3:immune complex diseases?
- activates a lot of inflammation over a long period of time
- RA (systemic, through the whole body, lots of organ problems also, symmetrical on both sides of body)
- systemic lupus erythematosis
What is type 4 delayed hypersensitivity?
- tissue reaction in response to subcutaneous antigen (skin)
- the more the person is exposed, the worse they get
- poison ivy
What are some examples of type 1 hypersensitivity reactions/diseases?
- hay fever
- chronic environment
- allergic asthma
- anaphylactic reactions
- anaphylactic shock
What are some examples of type 2 hypersensitivity reactions/diseases?
- reactions to transfusions
- erythroblastosis fetalis
What are some examples of type 3 hypersensitivity reactions/diseases?
- rheumatoid arthritis
What are some examples of type 4 hypersensitivity reactions/diseases?
- poison ivy
- graft rejections
What is the inability of the immune system to differeniate between self and nonself antigens?
What is systemic lupus erythematosus?
- chronic inflammatory disease of the kidneys, joints, and skin
- antigen/antibody overdeposit in tissues and cause vasculitis/synovitis (overactivity of immune system)
- bc circulating immune complexes deposit in almost all tissues, virtually every organ is affected
- varies in severity
What occurs in pts with lupus?
- b-cell hyperactivity (out of control, working too hard, t suppressors not working)
- autoantibody production
- tissue injury (glomerulonephritis, vasculitis, arthritis, butterfly rash on face)
etiology unknown (possibly virus, hormones, genetics, drugs)
What is inflammation of the kidneys?
What is vasculitis?
inflammation of blood vessels
What is Sjogrens disease?
- soft tissues become thick and inflexible
- etiology unknown
- very dry eyes and salivary glands
- can effect jts and skin
What is the hardening of the skin/excessive deposition of collagen into tissues/thick, inflexible, stiff?
- etiology unknown
- mostly women
What is the etiology of AIDS?
HIV-detected through blood test
How does AIDS attack the body?
- virus enters white blood cells
- virus attacks t cells and multiplies
- t cells no longer stimulate defense response
- immune system weakened
- body susceptible to opportunistic diseases
What are the 3 stages of AIDS?
- arc- AIDS related complex - decreased immune
- AIDS- full blown
What are some common opportunistic infections of AIDS?
- herpes virus - mouth
- candida-mouth - fungal infection- mouth,lungs
- pneumocystitis carnii - lungs, pneumonia
- intestinal protozoa- GI- diarrhea
- kaposi's sarcoma- LE vascular malignancy
- can also directly affect the brain leading to cerebral atrophy and dementia
How can someone be exposed to AIDS?
- body fluids especially during sexual contact
- IV drug users
- blood transfusions not screened for AIDS prior to march 1985
- mother can infect newborn
What musculoskeletal system conditions may PT treat in an AIDS pt?
- polymyositis- inflammation of many mm
- polymyopathy- m weakening
- muscle wasting/atrophy
What nervous system conditions may PT treat in an AIDS pt?
- CNS infection - brain, spinal cord
- vascular complications
- spinal cord
- cerebral atrophy
- cerebral hemorrhage
What type of emotional reactions may an AIDS pt have?
What are some PT problems associated with PWA?
- decreased resp. status
- decreased m strength-decondition-fatigue
- decreased mobility -> jt motion, skin integrity (thin, tears)
- neurological deficits/dysfunction (balance, coordination, abnormal tone, cognition, neuropathies-numbness, tingling)
- amb/gait problems
- endurance/fatigue problems
What are some PT interventions that can be used with AIDS pts?
- respiratory;chest PT
- pain- TENS, ES, US, H20, relaxation techniques
- decreased mobility-stretching/strenghtening, posture correction
- ROM exers
- neurological deficits-facilitation/inhibition techniques, activities appropriate for each deficit
- amb- gait training, assistive device
- endurance-aerobic exers, monitor vitals
- education/safety- protection of skin, maintenance of ROM energy conservation, joint protection, posture
be creative, innovative, flexible