Ch 2

  1. Anabolism
    Process of building up complex materials (proteins) from simple materials.
  2. catabolism
    process of breaking down complex materials (foods) to form simpler substances and release energy
  3. cell membrane
    structure surrounding cell; protection and determines what enters and exits cell
  4. chromosomes
    rod-shaped structures that contain DNA called genes. 46 chromosomes (23 pairs) in every cell (not including egg or sperm cells)
  5. cytoplasm
    all material outside nucleas and contained within cell membrane
  6. DNA
    chemical found in each chromosome; directs activity of a cell
  7. endoplasmic reticulum
    structure(canals) within cytoplasm. makes large proteins smaller; anabolism takes place here.
  8. genes
    Regions of DNA within each chromosome
  9. karyotype
    picture of chromosomes in the nucleus of a cell
  10. metabolism
    total of the chemical processes in a cell
  11. mitochondrai
    structures in the cytoplasm in which foods are burned to release energy. Catoblism takes place here.
  12. Nucleus
    control center of the cell; contains chromosomes and directs the activities of the cell
  13. adipose tissue
    collection of fat cells
  14. cartilage
    flexible connective tissue attached to bones at joints.
  15. epithelial cells
    skin cells that cover the external body surface and line the internal surgaces of organs.
  16. histologist
    specialist in the study of tissues
  17. larynx
    "voice box" located at the upper part of the trachea
  18. pharynx
    throat. common passageway for food and air
  19. pituitary gland
    endocrine gland at the base of the brain
  20. thyroid gland
    endocirine gland that surrounds the trachea in the neck
  21. trachea
    "windpipe" (tube leading to throat to the bronchial tubes)
  22. ureter
    one of two tubes, each leading from a kidney to the urinary bladder.
  23. urethra
    tube from the urinary bladder to the outside of the body
  24. uterus
    the womb
  25. viscera
    internal organs
  26. abdominal cavity
    space below the chest containt organs such as: liver, stomach, gallbladder, and intestines. Also called Abdomen.
  27. cranial cavity
    space in the head containing the brain and surrounded by the skull.
  28. diaphragm
    muscle separating the abdominal and thoracic cavaties. Moves up and down and aids in breathing.
  29. dorsal (posterior)
    pertaining to the back
  30. mediastinum
    centrally located space between the lungs
  31. pelvic cavity
    space below the abdomen containing portions of the intestines, rectum, urinary bladder, and reproductive organs.
  32. peritoneum
    double layerd membrane surronding the abdominal organs.
  33. pleura
    double layered membrane surrounding each lung
  34. pleural cavity
    space between the pleural membranes
  35. spinal cavity
    space withing the spinal column (backbones) and containing the psinal cord. also called spinal canal.
  36. thoracic cavity
    space in the chest containing the heart, lungs, bronchial tubes, trachea, esophagus, and other organs
  37. ventral (anterior)
    pertaining to the front
  38. hypochondriac
    Right and Left upper regions beneath the ribs
  39. epigastric
    middle and upper region above the stomach
  40. lumbar
    Right and left middle regions near the waist
  41. umbilical
    central region around the naval
  42. inguinal
    right and left lower regions near the groin also called iliac regions
  43. hypogastric
    middle lower region below the umbilical region
  44. RUQ
    right upper quadrant; contains liver, gallbladder, part of the pancreas, parts of small and large intestines.
  45. LUQ
    left upper quadrant; contains liver, stomach, spleen, part of the pancreas, parts of small and large intestines
  46. RLQ
    right lower quadrant; conrains parts of the small and large intestines, right ovary & fallopian tube, appendix, right ureter.
  47. LLQ
    lower left quadrant contains parts of the small and large intestines,left ovary & fallopian tube, and left ureter
  48. cervical
    neck region: 7 vertebrae
  49. thoracic
    chest region: 12 vertebrae
  50. lumbar
    loin waist region: 5 vertebrae
  51. sacral
    region of the sacrum; 5 bones fused together to form the sacrum.
  52. coccygeal
    region of the coccyx (tailbone) small bone composed of four fused pieces.
  53. vertebra
    single backbone
  54. vertebrae
  55. spinal column
    bone tissue surrounding the spinal cavity
  56. spinal cord
    nervous tissue within the spinal cavity
  57. disk (disc)
    pad of cartilage between vertebrae.
  58. deep
    away from the surface
  59. distal
    far from the point of attachment to the trunk or far from the beginning of a structure
  60. frontal (coronal) plane
    vertical plane dividing body into anterior (front) and posterior (back) sections.
  61. inferior (caudal)
    below another structure; pertaining to the tail or lower portion of the body
  62. lateral
    pertaining to the side
  63. medial
    pertaining to the middle or near the medial plane of the body.
  64. prone
    lying on the belly (face down,palms down)
  65. proximal
    near the point of attachment to trunk or near the beginning of a structure.
  66. sagittal (lateral) plane
    lengthwise, vertical plane dividing the body or structure into right and left sides
  67. superficial
    on the surface
  68. superior (cephalic)
    above another structure; pertaining to the head.
  69. supine
    lying on your back; face up palms up
  70. transverse (cross-sectional or axial) plane
    horizontal plane dividing the body into upper and lower portions
  71. abdomin/o

    abdominal- pertaining to the abdomen (region below the chest contianing internal organs)
  72. adip/o

    adipose- pertaining to or full of fat
  73. anter/o

    anterior- pertaining to the front
  74. bol/o
    to cast (throw)

    anabolism- cellular process in which proteins are built up
  75. cervic/o
    neck (of the body or of the uterus)

    cervical- pertaining to the neck of the body or neck of the uterus.
  76. chondr/o
    cartilage (type of connective tissue)

    chondroma- benign tumor of the cartilage
  77. chrom/o

    chromosomes- these nuclear structures absorb the color of dyes  used to stain the cell. Literally "bodies of color"
  78. coccyg/o

    coccygeal- pertaining to the coccyx
  79. crani/o

    craniotomy- incision of the skull
  80. cyt/o

    cytoplasm- formation of a cell (all material outside nucleas and within cell membrane)
  81. dist/o
    far, distant

    distal- far from the point of attachment to trunk or from beggining of structure
  82. dors/o
    back portion of the body

    dorsal- pertaining to the back side of body
  83. hist/o

    histology- the study of tissue
  84. ili/o
    ilium (part of the pelvic bone)

    iliac- pertaining to the upper part of the hip bone
  85. inguin/o

    inguinal- pertaining to the groin
  86. kary/o

    karyotype- classification of the nucleus
  87. later/o

    lateral- pertaining to the side
  88. lumb/o
    lower back (side and back between the ribs and the pelvis)

    lumbosacral- pertaining to the lumbar vertebrae and the sacrum.
  89. medi/o

    medial- pertaining to the middle of the body
  90. nucle/o

    nucleic- pertaining to the nucleus
  91. pelv/i
    pelvis, hip region

    pelvic- pertaining to the pelvis or hip region
  92. poster/o
    back, behind

    posterior- pertaining to the back side of the body, or behind another object
  93. proxim/o

    proximal- pertaining to the nearest point of attachment to the trunk or beginning of a structure.
  94. sacr/o

    sacral- pertaining to the sacrum
  95. sarc/o

    sarcoma- cancerous tumor of fleshy connective tissue (muscle bone and fat)
  96. spin/o
    spine, backbone

    spinal- pertaining to the spine
  97. thel/o

    epithelial cell- cell that lies on body surfaces, externally and internally (orginally identified in the skin of the nipples)
  98. thorac/o

    • thoracic- pertaining to the chest
    • thoracotomy- incision of the chest.
  99. trache/o
    trachea, windpipe

    tracheal- pertaining to the trachea
  100. umbilic/o
    navel, umbilicus

    umbilical- pertaining to the navel
  101. ventr/o
    belly side of the body

    ventral- pertaining to the belly side of the body
  102. vertebr/o
    verterbra(e), backbone(s)

    vertebral- pertaining to the verterbrae or backbone
  103. viscer/o
    internal organs

    visceral- pertaining to the internal organs
  104. ana-

    anabolic- pertaining to the process of building up complex materials (proteins) from simple materials.
  105. cata-

    catabolism- cellular process of breaking down foods to release energy
  106. epi-

    epigastric- pertaining to above the stomach
  107. hypo-

    hypochondriac region- upper region below the cartilage of the ribs
  108. inter-

    intervertabral- pertaining to between vertebrae. (disks are intevertabral)
  109. meta-

    metabolism- literally "to cast a change", meaning chemical changes that occur in a cell
  110. -eal
    pertaining to
  111. -ose
    pertaining to; full of
  112. -plasm
  113. -somes
  114. -type
    picture, classification
Card Set
Ch 2
all terms for ch.2